NH3 = ammonia
HCl = hydrochloric (muriatic = impure) acid
NaOCl = sodium hypochlorite (bleach)
Cl = chlorine
Cl2 = chlorine gas
NH2Cl = chloramine
N2H4 = hydrazine
NaCl = sodium chloride or salt
Acetic Acid (Ac) = CH3COO (vinegar)
H2O = water
Liquid bleach in the presence of ammonia decomposes as follows:
NaOCl → NaOH + HOCl → HCl + O (in other words, bleach decomposes to hydrochloric acid and oxygen). The sodium hydroxide (NaOH) remains in the liquid.
Then the products react to create chlorine gas (CL2) and chloramine vapor (2NH2Cl):
NaOCl + 2HCl → Cl2 + NaCl + H2O (chlorine gas, salt
, and water)
2NH3 + Cl2 → 2NH2Cl
(Note, with excess ammonia you can also create hydrazine (2NH3 + NaOCl → N2H4 + NaCl + H2O), where hydrazine is an explosive liquid (rocket fuel).
The same disassociation of chlorine applies to mixing with hydrochloric (muriatic) acid, so:
HOCl + HCl ↔ H2O + Cl2 (chlorine gas and water)
And with vinegar:
2HOCl + 2HCH3COO ↔ Cl2 + 2H2O + 2CH3OO- (chlorine gas, water, Ac ions)
The "chlorine gas" that is formed by all of these reactions is exactly the same thing, Cl2, with exactly the same toxicity. Each of the reactions also has additional products that are formed, that have different toxicity levels, smells, and visual appearance.