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Old 17-01-2023, 17:35   #136
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

With low current draw LED lights available now it's prudent to leave the anchor lights on all the rime wherever the vessel is. The thermal shock of turning them on and off probably does them more harm than just leaving them on and 40 ma or so current draw will take a long time to flatten a 100 amp hour battery even without solar panels.
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Old 24-01-2023, 19:57   #137
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

Mike, my theory, really just a guess, is that it could have to do with the unusual geography of north american harbors. From what I understand, NA is rather unusual in that we have large natural protected harbors. In Europe I'm told that most natural harbors are tiny, and they are supplemented with constructed harbors. This matches my experience in Greece, Spain, and Portugal for the most part.

It could be that in a large natural harbor, you'd have many boats and ships anchoring all over the place, and it would get difficult to know where the safe routes for navigation were. And having large ships sharing anchorages with small boats could lead to problems with swing circles. So the need for designated anchorages to partition the large ships off in their own corner from everyone else arises. Conversely in Europe, the model might have looked more like an entire harbor for the large ships, and a separate nearby harbor for the boats.

Now it's of course reductive to talk about North America and Europe as if they're the only places in the world. But for one, they're the only places I know anything about, and for another it might just be valid when comparing legally defined special anchorages. Places such as the Carribbean, South Pacific, and even South America probably didn't experience as much crowding in harbors in the 1940s compared to NA and Europe. Places in Asia probably did see just as much crowding, but the West has never really moved in step with Asia in terms of governmental decisions, so it would not be surprising that the two regions addressed that crowding in very different ways.

All this is just a guess based on little to no solid info, but it got me thinking and maybe someone else can either correct me or support my theory.
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Old 24-01-2023, 22:00   #138
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

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Originally Posted by JebLostInSpace View Post
Mike, my theory, really just a guess, is that it could have to do with the unusual geography of north american harbors. From what I understand, NA is rather unusual in that we have large natural protected harbors. In Europe I'm told that most natural harbors are tiny, and they are supplemented with constructed harbors. This matches my experience in Greece, Spain, and Portugal for the most part.

It could be that in a large natural harbor, you'd have many boats and ships anchoring all over the place, and it would get difficult to know where the safe routes for navigation were. And having large ships sharing anchorages with small boats could lead to problems with swing circles. So the need for designated anchorages to partition the large ships off in their own corner from everyone else arises. Conversely in Europe, the model might have looked more like an entire harbor for the large ships, and a separate nearby harbor for the boats.

Now it's of course reductive to talk about North America and Europe as if they're the only places in the world. But for one, they're the only places I know anything about, and for another it might just be valid when comparing legally defined special anchorages. Places such as the Carribbean, South Pacific, and even South America probably didn't experience as much crowding in harbors in the 1940s compared to NA and Europe. Places in Asia probably did see just as much crowding, but the West has never really moved in step with Asia in terms of governmental decisions, so it would not be surprising that the two regions addressed that crowding in very different ways.

All this is just a guess based on little to no solid info, but it got me thinking and maybe someone else can either correct me or support my theory.
That would make sense for plain designated anchorages, of which there are many in the United States. But not for "special" anchorages, which there are fewer. Special anchorages have the special rule that boats don't need have an anchor light.

My guess is that it is historical. Anchorages that for a very long time were anchorages of live aboards. Or where boats were stored long term unattended. Well recognized as being full of boats, and before it was practical to light a boat for long periods without being attended to. So, the special designation was created so those boats could be left unlit.

Only a guess, and it could be wrong, but it makes sense.
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Old 25-01-2023, 09:46   #139
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

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That would make sense for plain designated anchorages, of which there are many in the United States. But not for "special" anchorages, which there are fewer. Special anchorages have the special rule that boats don't need have an anchor light.

My guess is that it is historical. Anchorages that for a very long time were anchorages of live aboards. Or where boats were stored long term unattended. Well recognized as being full of boats, and before it was practical to light a boat for long periods without being attended to. So, the special designation was created so those boats could be left unlit.

Only a guess, and it could be wrong, but it makes sense.
Is the lack of lighting requirements the only thing that makes "special" anchorages special? Even if so, it could be that these were set aside for commercial ships which were more likely to be left unattended for some time, and therefore couldn't support constant lights before LEDs were available.
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Old 25-01-2023, 12:16   #140
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

Exemplary Special Anchorage Area designations per the US Code of Federal Regulations:

Subpart A - Special Anchorage Areas

§ 110.4 Penobscot Bay, Maine.

(a) Rockland Harbor. Beginning at a point bearing 244°, 1,715 yards, from Rockland Breakwater Light; thence 260°, 490 yards, to a point bearing 248° from Rockland Breakwater Light; thence 350°, 580 yards, to a point bearing 263° from Rockland Breakwater Light; thence 83°, 480 yards, to a point bearing 263° from Rockland Breakwater Light; and thence 169°, 550 yards, to the point of beginning. This area is limited to vessels no greater than 20 meters in length.

Note to paragraph (a):

This area is primarily for use by yachts and other recreational craft. Temporary floats or buoy for marking the location of the anchor may be used. All moorings shall be so placed that no vessel, when anchored, shall at any time extend beyond the limits of the area. All anchoring in the area shall be under the supervision of the local harbormaster or such authority as may be designated by authorities of the City of Rockland, Maine. Requests for placement of mooring buoys shall be directed to the local government. Fixed mooring piles or stakes are prohibited.

(b) Camden Harbor, Sherman Cove and adjacent waters -

(1) Anchorage A. All of the waters enclosed by a line beginning at Eaton Point at latitude 44°12′31″ N, longitude 069°03′34″ W; thence to latitude 44°12′28″ N, longitude 069°03′33″ W; thence to latitude 44°12′32″ N, longitude 069°02′49″ W; thence along the shoreline to the point of beginning. DATUM: NAD83

(2) Anchorage B. All of the waters enclosed by a line beginning at Dillingham Point at latitude 44°12′12″ N, longitude 069°03′20″ W.; thence to latitude 44°12′14″ N, longitude 069°02′58″ W.; thence to latitude 44°12′19″ N, longitude 069°03′08″ W; thence to latitude 44°12′28″ N, longitude 069°03′13″ W; thence to latitude 44°12′26″ N, longitude 069°03′39″ W; thence along the shoreline to the point of beginning. DATUM: NAD83

Note to paragraph (b):

Anchorages A and B are special anchorage areas reserved for yachts and other recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be allowed in this area. Temporary floats or buoys for marking anchors or moorings in place will be allowed. Fixed mooring piles or stakes are prohibited. All moorings must be so placed that no vessel when anchored is at any time extended into the thoroughfare. This is to ensure that a distance of approximately 150 feet is left between Anchorages A and B for vessels entering or departing from Camden Harbor. All anchoring in the area is under the supervision of the local harbor master or such other authority as may be designated by the authorities of the Town of Camden, Maine.

(c) Stonington Harbor, Deer Island Thorofare -

(1) Crotch Island. All of the waters bound by the following points beginning at the northeast shore of Crotch Island located at: latitude 44°08′51.0″ N, longitude 068°40′06.0″ W; thence southerly along the shoreline to latitude 44°08′36.0″ N, longitude 068°40′07.02″ W; thence to latitude 44°08′36.0″ N, longitude 068°40′04.02″ W; thence to latitude 44°08′46.98″ N, longitude 068°40′00.0″ W; thence to latitude 44°08′55.02″ N, longitude 068°39′49.02″ W; thence to latitude 44°08′54.0″ N, longitude 068°40′06.0″ W thence back to origin.

DATUM: NAD 83.

(2) [Reserved]

Note to § 110.4(c):

An ordinance of the Town of Stonington, Maine requires the approval of the Stonington Harbor Master for the location and type of moorings placed in these special anchorage areas. All anchoring in the areas are under the supervision of the Stonington Harbor Master or other such authority as may be designated by the authorities of the Town of Stonington, Maine. All moorings are to be so placed that no moored vessel will extend beyond the limit of the area.
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Old 03-02-2023, 04:31   #141
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

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Originally Posted by JebLostInSpace View Post
Is the lack of lighting requirements the only thing that makes "special" anchorages special? Even if so, it could be that these were set aside for commercial ships which were more likely to be left unattended for some time, and therefore couldn't support constant lights before LEDs were available.
No; look at a chart of Norfolk, VA, and you'll see anchorage areas designated to certain uses. I believe there are areas for vessels carrying certain explosive cargoes, etc. That means if you're transiting that area, you might find and LPG vessel anchored there, or whatever.
The lower Chesapeake is thick with special anchorage areas like this.
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Old 03-02-2023, 05:14   #142
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

With all this emphasis on special anchorages, a reminder that just because you can forget about an anchor light in a special anchorage does not mean you should forget about an anchor light in a special anchorage.
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Old 03-02-2023, 07:21   #143
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

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No; look at a chart of Norfolk, VA, and you'll see anchorage areas designated to certain uses. I believe there are areas for vessels carrying certain explosive cargoes, etc. That means if you're transiting that area, you might find and LPG vessel anchored there, or whatever.
The lower Chesapeake is thick with special anchorage areas like this.
You're mixing up "special anchorage areas" with "designated anchorages" - two different beasts. In the designated anchorages you mentioned, those vessels still have to display lights/dayshapes for anchoring.
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Old 03-02-2023, 08:46   #144
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

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With all this emphasis on special anchorages, a reminder that just because you can forget about an anchor light in a special anchorage does not mean you should forget about an anchor light in a special anchorage.


Quote:
Originally Posted by JebLostInSpace View Post
Is the lack of lighting requirements the only thing that makes "special" anchorages special? Even if so, it could be that these were set aside for commercial ships which were more likely to be left unattended for some time, and therefore couldn't support constant lights before LEDs were available.
FYI:

III. Legal Authority and Need for Rule

The legal basis for the final rule of a special anchorage area is: 33 U.S.C. 471, 1221 through 1236, and 2071; 33 CFR 1.05-1; and Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1. These authorities collectively authorize the Coast Guard to define anchorage areas. A special anchorage area is a designated water area within which vessels less than 65 feet (20 meters) in length are not required to sound signals required by Rule 35 of the Inland Navigation Rules (33 CFR 83.35) or exhibit the white anchor lights or shapes required by Rule 30 of the Inland Navigation Rules (33 CFR 83.30.) By regulation, special anchorage areas should be well removed from the fairways and be located where general navigation will not endanger or be endangered by unlighted vessels (33 CFR 109.10.) The purpose of this rule is to improve navigation safety by clearly delineating between the designated anchorage and the navigation channel, and by accommodating vessel traffic on all sides of the anchorage.

There are other designated, regulated anchorages, but they are not of the category of a special anchorage area as defined within the U.S. C.F.R. regarding the display of at anchor signal lights or emit sound signals.
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Old 03-02-2023, 12:16   #145
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

Thanks for posting that full text Montana... Seems my theory is blown. The only thing special about a special anchorage is the lack of required light (and sound) signals. But it's specifically for vessels under 65', so certainly not aimed primarily at cargo/industrial vessels or barges.
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Old 03-02-2023, 12:18   #146
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

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Thanks for posting that full text Montana... Seems my theory is blown. The only thing special about a special anchorage is the lack of required light (and sound) signals. But it's specifically for vessels under 65', so certainly not aimed primarily at cargo/industrial vessels or barges.


As per the above exemplary special anchorage designations:

"This area is primarily for use by yachts and other recreational craft."

. . .

"Anchorages A and B are special anchorage areas reserved for yachts and other recreational craft."
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Old 03-02-2023, 13:20   #147
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

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As per the above exemplary special anchorage designations:

"This area is primarily for use by yachts and other recreational craft."
That note was only applied to a specific few of the special anchorage areas. I believe there are probably some that are intended for barges, lightering craft, yarding boats, etc. that are under 65' in length.
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Old 03-02-2023, 13:35   #148
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

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That note was only applied to a specific few of the special anchorage areas. I believe there are probably some that are intended for barges, lightering craft, yarding boats, etc. that are under 65' in length.
Yep,

33 CFR § 110.1 - General.
CFR
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§ 110.1 General.
(a) The areas described in subpart A of this part are designated as special anchorage areas for the purposes of rule 30 (33 CFR 83.30) and rule 35 (33 CFR 83.35) of the Inland Navigation Rules, 33 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter E. Vessels of less than 20 meters in length; and barges, canal boats, scows, or other nondescript craft, are not required to sound signals required by rule 35 of the Inland Navigation Rules. Vessels of less than 20 meters are not required to exhibit anchor lights or shapes required by rule 30 of the Inland Navigation Rules.

(b) The anchorage grounds for vessels described in subpart B of this part are established, and the rules and regulations in relation thereto adopted, pursuant to the authority contained in section 7 of the act of March 4, 1915, as amended (38 Stat. 1053; 33 U.S.C. 471).

(c) All bearings in the part are referred to true meridian.

(d) Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps or charts whose reference horizontal datum is the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD 83 only after application of the appropriate corrections that are published on the particular map or chart being used.

[CGFR 67-46, 32 FR 17728, Dec. 12, 1967, as amended by CGD 86-082, 52 FR 33811, Sept. 8, 1987; USCG-1998-3799, 63 FR 35526, June 30, 1998; USCG-2014-0410, 79 FR 38432, July 7, 2014]

§ 110.1a Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety provisions.
(a) The anchorages listed in this section are regulated under 46 U.S.C. Chapter 700, “Ports and Waterways Safety”:

(1) Section 110.155 Port of New York.

(2) [Reserved]

(b) [Reserved]

[CGD 3-81-1A, 47 FR 4063, Jan. 28, 1982, as amended by CGD 96-052, 62 FR 16703, Apr. 8, 1997; USCG-2018-1049, 84 FR 7813, Mar. 5, 2019]
33 CFR Subpart A - Special Anchorage Areas
CFR

Link to each of the special anchorages listed below:
https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text...-110/subpart-A


§ 110.4 Penobscot Bay, Maine.
§ 110.5 Casco Bay, Maine.
§ 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).
§ 110.6a Fore River, Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine.
§ 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.
§ 110.9 Wells Harbor, Maine.
§ 110.10 Portsmouth Harbor, New Hampshire, north of Newcastle Island.
§ 110.25 Salem Sound, Mass.
§ 110.26 Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.
§ 110.27 Lynn Harbor in Broad Sound, Mass.
§ 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.
§ 110.30 Boston Harbor, Mass.
§ 110.31 Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.
§ 110.32 Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass.
§ 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.
§ 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass.
§ 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.
§ 110.45 Onset Bay, Mass.
§ 110.45a Mattapoisett Harbor, Mattapoisett, Mass.
§ 110.46 Newport Harbor, Newport, R.I.
§ 110.47 Little Narragansett Bay, Watch Hill, R.I.
§ 110.48 Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I.
§ 110.50 Stonington Harbor, Conn.
§ 110.50a Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn.
§ 110.50b Mystic Harbor, Groton and Stonington, Conn.
§ 110.50c Mumford Cove, Groton, Conn.
§ 110.50d Mystic Harbor, Noank, Conn.
§ 110.51 Groton, Conn.
§ 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn.
§ 110.53 Niantic, Conn.
§ 110.54 Long Island Sound, on west side of entrance to Pataguanset River, Conn.
§ 110.55 Connecticut River, Conn.
§ 110.55a Five Mile River, Norwalk and Darien, Conn.
§ 110.55b Connecticut River, Old Saybrook, Connecticut.
§ 110.56 Noroton Harbor, Darien, Conn.
§ 110.58 Cos Cob Harbor, Greenwich, Conn.
§ 110.59 Eastern Long Island, NY.
§ 110.60 Captain of the Port, New York.
§ 110.67 Delaware River, Essington, Pa.
§ 110.70a Northeast River, North East, Md.
§ 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.
§ 110.71a [Reserved]
§ 110.71b Wye River, Wye, Md.
§ 110.72 Blackhole Creek, Md.
§ 110.72a Chester River, southeast of Chestertown, Md.
§ 110.72aa Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.
§ 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia.
§ 110.72c Lake Murray, S.C.
§ 110.72d Ashley River, SC.
§ 110.73 St. Johns River, Fla.
§ 110.73a Indian River at Sebastian, Fla.
§ 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.
§ 110.73c Okeechobee Waterway, St. Lucie River, Stuart, FL.
§ 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.
§ 110.74a Manatee River, Bradenton, Fla.
§ 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla.
§ 110.74c Bahia de San Juan, PR.
§ 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.
§ 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex.
§ 110.77a Duluth-Superior Harbor, Duluth, Minn.
§ 110.77b Madeline Island, Wisconsin.
§ 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.
§ 110.79a Neenah Harbor, Neenah, Wis.
§ 110.79b Millers Bay, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI.
§ 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.
§ 110.80 Milwaukee Harbor, Milwaukee, Wis.
§ 110.80a Lake Macatawa, Mich.
§ 110.80b Marquette Harbor, Marquette, Mich.
§ 110.81 Muskegon Lake, Mich.
§ 110.81a Lake Betsie, Frankfort, MI.
§ 110.82 Charlevoix Harbor, Mich.
§ 110.82a Little Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, Harbor Springs, Mich.
§ 110.83 Chicago Harbor, Ill.
§ 110.83a Cedar Point, Sandusky, Ohio.
§ 110.84 Black Rock Channel opposite foot of Porter Avenue, Buffalo, N.Y.
§ 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y.
§ 110.85 Niagara River, Youngstown, N.Y.
§ 110.86 Sodus Bay, NY.
§ 110.87 Henderson Harbor, N.Y.
§ 110.90 San Diego Harbor, Calif.
§ 110.91 Mission Bay, Calif.
§ 110.93 Dana Point Harbor, Calif.
§ 110.95 Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.
§ 110.100 Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, Calif.
§ 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.
§ 110.115 Santa Barbara Harbor, Calif.
§ 110.120 San Luis Obispo Bay, Calif.
§ 110.125 Morro Bay Harbor, Calif.
§ 110.126 Monterey Harbor, Calif.
§ 110.126a San Francisco Bay, Calif.
§ 110.127 Lake Mohave and Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona.
§ 110.127a Lake Powell, Utah-Arizona.
§ 110.127b Flaming Gorge Lake, Wyoming-Utah.
§ 110.127c Trinidad Bay, Calif.
§ 110.128 Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.
§ 110.129 Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.
§ 110.129a Island of Kauai, Hawaii.
§ 110.129b Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)
§ 110.129c Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84)
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Old 03-02-2023, 17:56   #149
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

One should be mindful that a lot of this maritime regulation goes back to the days when a light was a candle in a box with windows and required constant attention by watchmen and the rules were compiled by pragmatist. We now live in the days of LEDs, solar panels and effective storage batteries which can and will operate reliably of unattended for years if not decades.

It's not worth the hassles and the drama and the stress of having to manage an incident, even if you are in the right, when at modest cost and effort you can significantly lessen the probability of being the victim of an incident involving an unlit obstruction.
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Old 03-02-2023, 18:05   #150
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Re: Who remembers all around white lights?

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One should be mindful that a lot of this maritime regulation goes back to the days when a light was a candle in a box with windows and required constant attention by watchmen and the rules were compiled by pragmatist. We now live in the days of LEDs, solar panels and effective storage batteries which can and will operate reliably of unattended for years if not decades.
.
You got that right. I remember on my dad's boat when I was a kid the anchor light was an oil lamp we hoisted on a halyard. It rarely stayed lit all night, so the last part of the night we were unlit. And of course we had to be onboard to light it every night so it wouldn't work unattended on a mooring. Way better now days and maybe the whole Special Anchorage Area concept is obsolete.
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