Are you still trying to write a sailing novel?
You have your terms reasonably badly understood/confused here.
#1 Most people in actual storm force winds will have no sail set. Storm force conditions are (fortunately) actually quite rare. Most people who talk about sails
being set are really talking about gale conditions. Many (perhaps most) people who sail around the world in the tropics don't even ever see actual storm-force winds at sea. You can have sails set depending on specific circumstances - we have forereached in such conditions . . . but bare poles is more commonly the solution when you get to actual storm force.
#2 'Close-hauled' usually means sailing to windward . . . it usually does not mean hove-to, nor sitting to a para-anchors (with sails or bare poled). It would be rather rare to be sailing close-hauled into actual storm-force winds - about the best even good boats can manage in those sorts of conditions is close reaching with pinching up to close-hauled at the top of the waves (see reports on the sydney
to hobart race
to see examples of this).
Note when 'hove-to', you often (but not always) have a backed storm jib
. To prevent sailing up too close and to prevent gaining too much speed.
#3 The Pardey
approach is hmmm . . . lets says say somewhat controversial. They had a quite distinctive/unusual boat, which was suited to that particular approach and it is generally felt to be less suitable for other more common cruising boats. Their boat was small (so the para-anchor was easy to handle/easier to handle that para-anchors suited to more common bigger boats). Their boat had an 'inefficient keel
and rudder, meaning that it did not sail very close to the wind, which helps a boat stay hove-to because it means the boat will not sail up close, but most more common fin keel
spade rudder boats are less comfortable in that attitude. And their boat did not run off well (the rudder gave poor control and it would tend to go sideways to the wave faces), again unlike the more common fin keel/spade rudder designs which tend to (not all of them) run off better.
The 'slick' the pardey's talk about is also somewhat 'controversial. You should go look at some of the videos taken from helos during the sydney
to hobart storm, and think about how much 'slick' is going to exist, and how long it is going to exist in the breaking water
, and how 'easy' it is going to be to actually keep your boat in that zone - in those sorts of truly huge wave conditions. There is certainly some effect from the para-anchor and hull
on the waves . . but how useful that effect is in actual storm conditions is hmmm debatable.
This can be debated at length . . . but currently I would suggest, for the more common cruising boat designs, the generally preferred storm system is a 'long series' drogue (eg 'jorden series drogue" and similar concepts). The Pardey
approach is not commonly used (it is not widely recommended even by most para-anchor manufacturers) - this is a debate about details of the pardey approach I have not even gotten into here (like their using a much smaller para-anchor than typically recommended to allow the boat to 'give', and the challenges in engineering their suggested bridle
system to sustain the requited storm-force loads).
#4 Para-anchors and drogues are different devices. Para-anchors tend to be set off the bows, and tend to be big enough to intend to 'stop' the boat in the water
. Drogues tend to be set off the stern and tend to have smaller surface area with the intent of preventing the boat from surfing but still allowing it to move at some speed. Drogues can be either 'single-element' or 'few element' or 'long series' designs depending on how many drag elements are on the rode
while papa-anchors all (that I am aware of) are single
Now, as to how a rudder could get broken . . . . The force when a boat on a para-anchor is thrown suddenly backwards by a wave can be quite high . . . as mentioned above that can bend the rudder stock, but it also can break the connection between the rudder stock and the blade (often there are some bars welded to the stock inside the rudder and those welds can snap). Usually, when sitting on a para-anchor you have the rudder 'lashed down/locked off' and you will not know the rudder is broken until after you try to get sailing again. This whole broken rudder thing is one of the reasons leaning people toward the currnt preference for drogues (along with some challenges retrieving para-anchors).