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Old 24-05-2022, 22:50   #1
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Tonga's January Volcanic Eruption Research

New Zealand's water science institute NIWA's research vessel (the RV Tangaroa) along with her crew and scientists have just arrived back in the country after spending a month studying the consequences of Tonga's Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha'apai volcanic eruption back in January.

Here is a link to the preliminary report that details both surprising and unexpected results.

NIWA is a NZ Govt. owned research institute and the acronym stands for National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research.
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Old 25-05-2022, 01:08   #2
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Re: Tonga's January Volcanic Eruption Research

See also:
Robotic boat to map Tongan volcano’s aftermath
https://www.cruisersforum.com/forums...ml#post3602465
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Old 25-05-2022, 03:12   #3
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Re: Tonga's January Volcanic Eruption Research

Submarine Eruption of Kavachi Volcano: a Sharkcano

You’ve probably heard of Sharknado, but have you heard of a Sharkcano?

The Kavachi volcano, in the Solomon Islands is an underwater volcano, that was dubbed a “sharkcano”, after a 2015 expedition discovered sharks living within it. [2]

Now, NASA has shared new satellite images of the latest sharkcano eruption, which happened this month. [1a & b]

Kavachi Volcano, about 24 kilometers (15 miles) south of Vangunu Island, in the Solomon Islands, is one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the Pacific.
According to the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program, the volcano entered an eruptive phase in October 2021, and satellite data showed discolored water around Kavachi, on several days in April and May 2022. [1]

A 2015 scientific expedition to the volcano found two species of sharks, including hammerheads, living in the submerged crater. The researchers also found microbial communities that thrive on sulfur. The presence of the sharks in the crater raised “new questions about the ecology of active submarine volcanoes and the extreme environments in which large marine animals can exist,” the researchers wrote in a 2016 Oceanography article, “Exploring the ‘Sharkcano’.” [2]

Experts believe that the sharks must have mutated, to survive in the hot, and acidic environment, thanks, in part, to a special feature of their bodies called the ampullae of Lorenzini. It’s a collection of pores, near the sharks’ snout, that may allow them to sense changes in Earth’s magnetic field, which could give them an early warning that the volcano is about to erupt, and allow them to zip away, to a safe distance.

[1a] “Kavachi” [ 4 May-10 May 2022] ~ Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program
https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=255060

[1b] “Submarine Eruption of Kavachi Volcano” ~ NASA Earth Observatory
https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/im...avachi-volcano

[2] “Exploring the ‘Sharkcano’: Biogeochemical Observations of the Kavachi Submarine Volcano (Solomon Islands)” ~ by Brennan T. Phillips et al
https://tos.org/oceanography/article...vachi-submarin
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