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Old 22-06-2024, 03:11   #1
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Satellite Oceanography

Satellite Oceanography

The ocean[s] covers around 71% of the Earth’s surface. They, essentially, supports all life, including our breathing air, food, weather, and climate.
Yet, 95% of our world ocean is unknown.

Earth observation (EO) satellites have become a key tool, in studying the oceans, as they are the only means of observing the oceans, synoptically, at high spatial resolution.
Satellites help us observe, and monitor, our water and oceans, from the vantage point of space. It offers unique perspectives, and solutions, for all kinds of challenges, on Earth, essential to our survival.

Advanced satellite imagery is often combined with Earth-based, in-situ sensors, and measurements, to provide accurate data to scientists.
Satellites play a critical role in understanding the impact of ocean-related events, and trends.

Satellite sensors make use of different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum [visible, infrared, microwave], to make measurements, and can be either: Passive: Measuring radiation emitted from the sea surface;
or
Active: Transmitting signals to the sea surface and measuring the return signal that comes back.
Visible and infrared sensors are limited by the presence of clouds, when the sea surface is obscured.
In contrast, microwave sensors can “see” through clouds, but generally have poorer spatial resolution, than that of visible and infrared ones.

The main longstanding measurements techniques, that provide a wealth of data on the oceans are:
• Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements using either infrared or passive microwave sensor. Typically, these have spatial resolutions of ~1km and ~25km, respectively
• Ocean Colour measurements made in the visible part of the spectrum, which detect the presence of phytoplankton (microscopic algae) which contain chlorophyll and so change the colour of the waters from blue to green
• Sea Surface Height, and hence currents via geostrophy, using radar altimetry – an active system that measures the travel time of a signal to and from the satellite to the sea surface
• Other ocean parameters remotely sensed by satellites include Sea Ice, Significant Wave Height, Winds and Sea Surface Salinity.

“Our Oceans from Space” ~ NASA Goddard
https://youtu.be/v3dO7PhYas4





“Our Ocean from Space: a journey into Earth's marine ecosystems” ~ European Space Agency [ESA], and UNESCO
Quote:
Originally Posted by ESA
“Our Ocean from Space” is a travelling exhibition examining the ocean’s dynamics as viewed from Space. Using stunning Earth observation satellite images, augmented reality, and interviews with experts, local decision-makers, and coastal inhabitants engaged in the United Nations Ocean Decade, the exhibition explores current efforts to protect our valuable marine ecosystems ...”
https://ouroceanfromspace.org/
Explore it ➥ https://ouroceanfromspace.org/stories/



“Ocean Worlds: Water in the Solar System and Beyond” ~ NASA
Quote:
Originally Posted by NASA
“The story of oceans is the story of life. Oceans define our home planet, covering the majority of Earth’s surface and driving the water cycle that dominates our land and atmosphere. But more profound still, the story of our oceans envelops our home in a far larger context that reaches deep into the universe and places us in a rich family of ocean worlds that span our solar system and beyond ...”
https://www.nasa.gov/specials/ocean-worlds/
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Old 22-06-2024, 05:28   #2
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Re: Satellite Oceanography

“Ocean Color Images” ~ NASA’s “PACE” [Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, & Ocean Ecosystem]
https://pace.oceansciences.org/ocean_color_gallery.htm
Quote:
Originally Posted by PACE
“This gallery includes recent ocean color images created by the Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. OBPG's responsibilities include the collection, processing, calibration, validation, archive and distribution of ocean-related products from a large number of operational, satellite-based remote-sensing missions. These missions have been providing ocean color data to the international research community since 1996 ...
PACE [Home] https://pace.oceansciences.org/home.htm
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