In theory, maybe. The problem is that your NMEA
bus may be carrying more than just GPS data "sentences" on it, and your VHF may not be able to filter out the rest, leaving it somewhere between confused and dumbfounded by the data coming in on the cable.
This is something you would need to contact the VHF maker and ask, unless you wanted to try it out and see whether anything went kerfluie. (Probably safe to try, but I'd be reluctant to do so when I could call the radio