My gut feeling is that you won't find anything that's plug-and-play right off the shelf. (Though I'd love to be wrong about this)
That said, if you (or someone you know) know a little bit about electronics
and a little bit more about programming, it should be feasible with a little bit of effort.
In which case, look into GPIO. You'll want something that supports analog IO rather than digital, but it's common to find modules that have both.
A quick search shows a few (more expensive) options, including various GPIO-to-USB adapters. However I expect you'd still need to do some programming to interface with them. Unless you are lucky enough to find software
that already supports them.
Side note: it might be worth looking at Home Automation software
such as Home Assistant to see if there's any overlap. While the software itself may or may not be useful for you, people have written integrations/drivers for all kinds of sensors and devices. You might be able to reuse/adapt some of the integration code for your purposes.
On the cheaper end (but requiring more skill/effort) would be a development board that has GPIO. Something like a raspberry pi, esp32 or maybe Arduino. But definitely more programming involved.
It sounds like a fun project
. If I wasn't slammed with stuff right now, I'd offer to help you prototype something. Unfortunately I just won't have the time for the foreseeable future.