The load that your bowsprit can take is not a matter of opinion. It is very straightforward engineering, and you can estimate this accurately enough to determine if your bowsprit will take anchoring
When the anchor is pulling down/forwards against the bowsprit the bowsprit is being supported vertically by the forestay. Measure your forestay, then look up the rated strength of the wire. The designer
of your rig will have made the rest of the bowsprit and rigging
strong enough to equal or exceed the breaking strength of the forestay.
I believe you will find that the bowsprit is capable to taking a load that exceeds what your anchoring gear
can apply to it. Max anchoring load will equal the breaking strength of your chain.
If you want to be more accurate with the above you can draw out sprit/anchor rode
and do what is called a vector analysis, this is simple and there are examples available on the web. But the above is a decent look at the strength of your rig. If you do this, draw the anchor rode straignt up and down, this will create the heaviest load on the rig.
Sailors have been successfully anchoring off the sprit for a long time. It is also an excellent way to increase comfort at anchor, as it reduces sailing around the anchor and helps hold the boat's head
down in a chop.