I grow basil, scallions, vidalia onions -- just gave mine to a replica of Spray that was coming thru. (They are onion people too.) Scallions keep growing though so just snip off the tops and you're good for quite some time. Do bring them in when the temperature falls as mine are "iffy" at present -- it was COLD.
Sprouts, of course -- lentils are a favorite though I re-hydrate dried beans for crunchy snacks. Sprouting is okay in the larger beans but I prefer them simply plumped up -- and uncooked!
I've tried growing Romaine lettuce but don't have enough patience to wait -- it grows slower than a turtle walks thru molasses in the dead of winter. Scallions should grow about 1/4" per day. Vidalia is slower but does grow.
Regular onions will sprout too -- and they make great dipping sticks.
I've not tried tomatoes but do have herb bombs that I picked up on ThinkGeek -- I'm going to plant those when I take off from here. Basil is simple/easy to grow from seed. I say that because I'm not good at this plant stuff and I've had success with basil.
Seaweed did have an aloe plant but one winter killed it. I'll get another and try again. I'd also like to try a spider plant -- just because I think they look cool.
But the thing that grows best is me!