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Old 15-10-2006, 04:55   #106
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October 15

1993 ~ Amstel brewery on Curacao produces 1,000,000,000th bottle

1975 ~ Iceland unilaterally moves International boundary from 50 to 200 miles

1954 ~ Hurricane Hazel strikes U.S. and Canada
Hurricane Hazel, the fourth major hurricane of 1954, hammers southern Ontario, Canada, on this day in 1954. Hazel hit hard from Jamaica to Canada, killing more than 400 people and causing over $1 billion in damages.

1918 ~ British Q-ship “Cymric” sinks British submarine “J6"
HMS “J6" was lying on the surface outside Blythe. The Q-ship “Cymric” was also in the area, and had already encountered two British submarines that day. At 1600 a third submarine was spotted closing to have what the Cymric thought was a good look before attacking. The Cymric at once went to action stations believing the submarine to be the German U-boat “U6". As shells poured into the submarine the signalman attempting to hoist a recognition signal was killed. J6 attempted to lose the Q-ship by entering a fog bank. Cymric followed, and found the submarine settling in the water. It was only when survivors were picked up that the mistake became clear.

1863 ~ C.S.S. “Hunley” sinks during tests
The C.S.S. Hunley, the first successful submarine, sinks during a test run, killing its inventor and seven crewmembers. On February 17, 1864, refloated, the ship headed out of Charleston Harbor and approached the U.S.S. Housatanic. The Hunley stuck a torpedo into the Yankee ship and then backed away before the explosion. The Hunley sank then sank again, taking yet another crew down with it. The vessel was raised on August 8, 2000, and will now reside in an exhibit at the Charleston History Museum.

1815 ~ Napoleon Bonaparte exiled on Island of St. Helena
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Old 16-10-2006, 03:53   #107
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October 16

Today 2006 ~ Sri Lanka convoy blast 'kills 67'
At least 67 people have been killed in a suicide attack on a navy convoy in northern Sri Lanka, the military says. Military officials told the BBC that they had counted the bodies near the town of Digampathana, near Trincomalee. They say that at least 60 people - navy personnel and civilians - were injured."
There were more reports of violence over the weekend. The military said the navy destroyed a trawler carrying arms off the island's west coast on Sunday, leaving at least five rebels dead.


1946 ~ Execution of Nazi War Criminals
On 1 October 1946, the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg delivered its verdicts, after 216 court sessions. Of the original twenty-four defendants, eighteen were found guilty while three were acquitted.
Robert Ley and Hermann Goering both committed suicide during the trial.
Wilhelm Frick, Hans Frank, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Walther Funk, Fritz Saukel, Alfred Rosenberg, Julius Streicher, Alfred Jodl, Wilhelm Keitel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, and Joachim von Ribbentrop were found guilty and executed on 16th October, 1946.
Rudolf Hess, Erich Raeder, were sentenced to life imprisonment and Albert Speer to 25 years.
Karl Doenitz , Walther Funk, Franz von Papen, and Constantin von Neurath were also found guilty and sentenced to long terms of imprisonment.
At other war crime trials Josef Kramer and Irma Grese were also executed.


1925 ~ Texas School Board prohibits teaching of evolution

1758 ~ Lexicographer Noah Webster born

1492 ~ Columbus' fleet anchors at "Fernandina" (Long Island, Bahamas)
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Old 17-10-2006, 03:14   #108
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October 17

1989 ~ San Francisco (Loma Prieta) earthquake (7.1) kills 67
More: http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~es10/fieldtr...hQWelcome.html
And: http://www.sfmuseum.org/1906/89.html
And: http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-29/


1986 ~ U.S. aid to Contras signed into law
In a short-lived victory for the Nicaraguan policy of the Reagan administration, the President signs into law an act of Congress approving $100 million of military and "humanitarian" aid for the Contras. Unfortunately for Ronald Reagan and his advisors, the Iran-Contra scandal is just about to break wide open, seriously compromising their goal of overthrowing the leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua.

1973 ~ OPEC Oil Embargo by Arab states begins
On this day, 11 Arab oil producers increased oil prices and cut back production in response to the support of the United States and other nations for Israel in the Yom Kippur War. The same day, OPEC, (The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries), approved the oil embargo at a meeting in Tangiers, Morocco. Almost overnight, gasoline prices quadrupled, and the world economy suffered greatly as a result.

1933 ~ Albert Einstein arrives in U.S. (refugee from Nazi Germany)

1931 ~ Al Capone convicted of tax evasion (sentenced to 11 years)

1887 ~ Gustav R Kirchhoff dies (63)
Kirchoff contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. He coined the term "black body" radiation in 1862, and two sets of independent concepts (circuit theory and thermal emission). “Kirchhoff's laws” are named after him.
Kirchoff’s First Law: “At any point in an electrical circuit where charge density is is not changing in time, the sum of currents flowing towards that point is equal to the sum of currents flowing away from that point.”


1855 ~ Bessemer steelmaking process patented

1814 ~ HMS “Dispatch” captures USRC “Eagle”
The crew of USRC Eagle, which had been driven ashore near Negros Head, New York in an encounter with the British brig HMS Dispatch, dragged the cutter's guns up a bluff in an effort to continue the battle. The New York Evening Post gave an account of what happened next to the out-gunned cutter:
"During the engagement between the Cutter EAGLE and the enemy, the following took place which is worthy of notice. Having expended all the wadding of the four-pounders on the hill, during the warmest of the firing, several of the crew volunteered and went on board the cutter to obtain more. At this moment the masts were shot away, when the brave volunteers erected a flag upon her stern; this was soon shot away, but was immediately replaced by a heroic tar, amidst the cheers of his undaunted comrades, which was returned by a whole broadside from the enemy. When the crew of the Cutter had expended all their large shot and fixed ammunition, they tore up the log book to make cartridges and returned the enemy's small shot which lodged in the hull. The Cutter was armed with only 6 guns, 4 four-pounders and 2 twos with plenty of muskets and about 50 men. The enemy being gone and provisions scarce the volunteers from this city left Captain Lee and his crew and arrived here on Thursday evening the 13th instant, in a sloop from Long Island. . .We have since learned that Captain Lee succeeded in getting off the Cutter and was about to remove her to a place of safety when the enemy returned and took possession of her. She was greatly injured, but it is expected that the enemy will be able to refit her to annoy us in the sound."


1483 ~ Tomas de Torquemada appointed inquisitor-general of Spain
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Old 18-10-2006, 04:14   #109
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October 18

1962 ~ Crick & Watson win Nobel Prize
Dr. Watson (U.S.), Dr. Crick, and Dr. Wilkins (Britain) win Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in determining structure of DNA

1931 ~ Thomas Alva Edison dies (84)

1926 ~ Chuck Berry born

1898 ~ U.S. takes control of Puerto Rico
In July 1898, near the end of the Spanish-American War, U.S. forces launched an invasion of Puerto Rico, the 108-mile-long, 40-mile-wide island that was one of Spain's two principal possessions in the Caribbean. With little resistance and only seven American deaths, U.S. troops were able to secure the island by mid August. After the signing of an armistice with Spain, the island was turned over to the U.S forces on October 18. U.S. General John R. Brooke became military governor. In December, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Spanish-American War and officially approving the cession of Puerto Rico to the United States.

1867 ~ U.S. takes formal possession of Alaska from Russia
Separated from the far eastern edge of the Russian empire by only the narrow Bering Strait, the Russians had been the first Europeans to significantly explore and develop Alaska. During the early 19th century, the state-sponsored Russian-American Company established the settlement of Sitka and began a lucrative fur trade with the Native Americans. However, Russian settlement in Alaska remained small, never exceeding more than a few hundred people. By the 1860s, the Russian-American Company had become unprofitable. Faced with having to heavily subsidize the company if an active Russian presence in the territory was to be maintained, the tsar and his ministers chose instead to sell to the Americans ($7 million USD).

1564 ~ Admiral Sir John Hawkins begins second voyage to the West Indies and Guinea

1469 ~ Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile in Valladolid (Spain united)
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Old 19-10-2006, 03:52   #110
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October 19

1983 ~ Maurice Bishop, premier of Grenada (1979-83), murdered in coup
In 1979 Bishop's party staged a revolutionary coup and deposed Prime Minister Eric Gairy (United Labour Party), who was out of the country addressing the United Nations at the time. Bishop subsequently declared himself Prime Minister of Grenada. In 1983 Bishop was placed under house arrest by the military, which had turned its loyalty to Bishop's erstwhile friend and Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard. Bishop was eventually freed from his house arrest by protesting students, but was then shot and killed later that day during a confrontation at St. George's, along with a number of his supporters including several cabinet ministers.
Six days later, under the pretext that U.S. citizens on the island were in danger, the U.S. occupied the island with "Operation Urgent Fury," and deposed Coard.


1960 ~ U.S. imposes embargo on exports to Cuba
The Cuban Revolution of 1959 saw the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batista and the rise to power of Fidel Castro. The U.S. government formally recognized the new Cuban administration, but relations were to deteriorate rapidly as the Cuban government passed the first Agrarian Reform Law, allowing for the expropriation of large-scale (largely American-owned) land holdings. The compensation offered (based on 20-year bonds at 4.5% interest for the tax-declared value) was seen as inadequate, and was rejected by American interests. What also worried the American government was that by the end of 1959 there was evidence of a Cuban-Soviet rapprochement. During 1960, tensions between Cuba and the US escalated into economic warfare. Each time the Cuban government nationalized American properties, the American government in response to that took countermeasures, resulting in the prohibition of all exports to Cuba on October 19, 1960.

1879 ~ Thomas Edison demonstrates electric light

1870 ~ British SS “Cambria” sinks
A short lived ship (Launched: Monday, 01 March 1869), she sank tragically on her 12th journey home, 19th October 1870 with the loss of 196 lives.

1781 ~ Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown
British General Cornwallis surrendered 7,087 officers and men, 900 seamen, 144 cannons, 15 galleys, a frigate and 30 transport ships. Pleading illness, he did not attend the surrender ceremony, but his second-in-command, General Charles O'Hara, carried Cornwallis' sword to the American and French commanders. As the British and Hessian troops marched out to surrender, the British band played the song "The World Turned Upside Down."
Although the war persisted on the high seas and in other theaters, the Patriot victory at Yorktown effectively ended fighting in the American colonies. Peace negotiations began in 1782, and on September 3, 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed, formally recognizing the United States as a free and independent nation after eight years of war.
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Old 20-10-2006, 04:39   #111
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October 20

1995 ~ U.N. asks U.S. to pay up billions
Under the Reagan administration, the U.S. withdrew from UNESCO, and began to deliberately withhold its U.N dues as a form of pressure on the UN. The US is the largest contributor to the UN, but also its largest debtor, owing about $1.7bn, according to UN figures. Washington puts the amount at closer to $1bn.

1976 ~ Norwegian tanker “Frosta” collides with “George Prince” (76 die)
The ferry “George Prince” was struck by the Norwegian tanker SS Frosta, which was traveling upriver on the Mississippi River. The collision occurred at mile post 120.8 above Head of Passes, less than three-quarters of a mile from the construction site of the bridge that would replace the ferry 7 years later. The ferry was crossing from Destrehan, Louisiana on the East Bank to Luling, Louisiana on the West Bank. Ninety-six passengers and crew were aboard the ferry when it was struck, and seventy-six perished.
Goto: http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb...fier=ADA054344


1911 ~ Roald Amundsen sets out on race to South Pole

1835 ~ Charles Darwin aboard HMS “Beagle” departs Galapagos enrout Tahiti

1827 Battle at Navarino
During the Greek War for Independence, a combined Turkish and Egyptian armada is destroyed by an allied British, French, and Russian naval force at the Battle of Navarino. The Turkish defeat was so complete that in 1828, they began to evacuate Greece, and in 1832 Greece won its independence after nearly 400 years of Turkish rule.

1820 ~ Spain sells part of Florida to U.S. for $5 million

1818 ~ World’s longest undefended border
49th parallel forms as border between U.S. and Canada

1803 ~ U.S. Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the USA
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Old 20-10-2006, 11:55   #112
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1066 - Jersey Army (with a little help from our country cousins) whips the English at the Battle of Hasting.

1274 - First Jersey Pope elected.

1275 - Jerseyman invents "decent" beer.

1275 - Jersey Pope marries. twice. simultaneously.

1276 - Jersey biggest export becomes empty bottles.

1277 - Last Jersey Pope changes religion. For a bet. Denies alcohol involved.

1327 - Jersey Motto officially adopted "Caveat Emptor" - "Welcome to Jersey".

1327 - Jersey Flag created when Designer signs name. on Bar tab.

1462 - Jerseyman invents Potatoes.

1475 - Jerseyman invents Alcohol. Again. During Pub Lock in.

1476 - Jersey invents Money.

1477 - Jersey Invents "Offshore Bank Accounts"

1799 - All quiet.

1800 - Seriously big party.

1602 - Jerseyman "discovers" place near New York.

1603 - Jerseyman loses New Jersey in card game. Denies excessive drinking involved.

1939 - Jersey declares war on Germany.

1945 - Jersey wins WWII. with a little help from our country cousins (and some colonials)

1967 - Jersey lands first man on moon. Jerseynaut Forgets to bring Camera. Denies late night drinking session before take off.

1974 - Jersey decides NOT to enter EEC / EC / EU.

1989 - Jersey defeats Soviet Union in drinking world championship and ends the Cold War.

2000 - Millenium Party cancelled due to mix up in dates.

2001 - date: Start of Jersey Millenium Beer Festival.
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Old 21-10-2006, 03:59   #113
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October 21

1975 ~ U.S. Coast Guard Academy 1st allows women to enroll

1960 ~ British nuclear sub “Dreadnought” launched

1948 ~ Russian proposal to destroy atomic weapons rejected
At the end of July 1946, days before the opening of the Paris Peace Conference, the United States detonated two atomic bombs in tests at Bikini Atoll. There can be little doubt that these tests were deliberately timed to remind the Soviet Union of the American's atomic power. Twenty-one nations gathered at the conference to attempt to resolve a number of issues to arise out of the war, however in this atmosphere of mutual distrust between the two major Superpowers little was achieved. Attempts had been made by the United States to avert this tension earlier in the year. On 16th March 1946 they had released a plan which suggested allowing international control of the atomic bomb. The Acheson-Lilienthal proposal did not satisfy the Soviet Union, however, as it involved the United States retaining full control of their atomic bombs during the plan's transitional stages, whilst development of a Soviet atomic bomb would not be allowed*. The plan failed with the Soviet's refusing to discuss international control of atomic weaponry until all existing stocks of atomic bombs were destroyed.
*The American atomic monopoly was however in its final days. On August 29th, 1949, at Semipalatinsk in north-east Kazakhstan, the Soviet Union detonated their first atomic bomb. The test, code-named First Lightning, was carried out with a plutonium implosion bomb of the type used by the United States on Nagasaki.
The tension of the Cold War now became an atomic stand-off. The result was an ever increasing arms race that continued for the next forty years, very quickly seeing the development of thermonuclear devices such as the hydrogen bomb - more than a thousand times more powerful than its atomic predecessors.


1805 ~ Battle of Trafalgar
In one of the most decisive naval battles in history, a British fleet under Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, fought off the coast of Spain.
Preparing to engage the enemy force on October 21, Nelson divided his 27 ships into two divisions and signaled a famous message from the flagship Victory: "England expects that every man will do his duty."
In five hours of fighting, the British devastated the enemy fleet, destroying 19 enemy ships. No British ships were lost, but 1,500 British seamen were killed or wounded in the heavy fighting. The battle raged at its fiercest around the Victory, and a French sniper shot Nelson in the shoulder and chest. The admiral was taken below and died about 30 minutes before the end of the battle. Nelson's last words, after being informed that victory was imminent, were "Now I am satisfied. Thank God I have done my duty."


1797 ~ U.S. Navy frigate “Constitution” (Old Ironsides) launched
The USS Constitution, a 44-gun U.S. Navy frigate built to fight Barbary pirates off the coast of Tripoli, is launched in Boston Harbor. The vessel performed commendably during the Barbary conflicts, and in 1805 a peace treaty with Tripoli was signed on the Constitution's deck.
During the War of 1812, the Constitution won its enduring nickname "Old Ironsides" after defeating the British warship GuerriÈre in a furious engagement off the coast of Nova Scotia. Witnesses claimed that the British shots merely bounced off the Constitution's sides, as if the ship were made of iron rather than wood.


1639 ~ Sea battle at Downs (Duines)
Italian Admiral Maarten Tromp beats Spanish Armada under Admiral Antonio D'Oquendo.
More: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Garden/5213/tromp.htm


1492 ~ Columbus lands on San Salvador Island (Oct 12, 1492 Julian calender)
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Old 22-10-2006, 04:10   #114
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October 22

1981 ~ U.S. national debt tops $1 trillion
When Ronald Reagan came to office in 1981, the debt accumulated since the founding of the U.S. was $1 trillion. When he left 8 years later, he had tripled the debt to $3 trillion.
According to: http://brillig.com/debt_clock/ ,the current public debt is
$ 8 , 5 5 2 , 5 9 6 , 1 1 3 , 3 3 4 . 6 0
as of 22 Oct 2006 at 09:45:52 AM GMT
The estimated population of the United States is 300,039,105, so each citizen's share of this debt is $28,504.94.
The GDP to debt data can be found at the US Government web site: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget...6/pdf/hist.pdf


1962 ~ John F. Kennedy - Address on the Cuban Crisis
Kennedy imposes naval blockade (“quarantine”) on Cuba, beginning the Cuban missile crisis, thus:
<quoted excerpt>
“... Acting, therefore, in the defense of our own security and of the entire Western Hemisphere, and under the authority entrusted to me by the Constitution as endorsed by the resolution of the Congress, I have directed that the following initial steps be taken immediately:

First: To halt this offensive build-up, a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated. All ships of any kind bound for Cuba from whatever nation or port will, if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back: This quarantine will be extended, if needed, to other types of cargo and carriers. We are not at this time, however, denying the necessities of life as the Soviets attempted to do in their Berlin blockade of 1948.

Second: I have directed the continued and increased close surveillance of Cuba and its military build-up. The Foreign Ministers of the Organization of American States in their communiqu6 of October 3 rejected secrecy on such matters in this Hemisphere. Should these offensive military preparations continue, thus increasing the threat to the Hemisphere, further action will be justified. I have directed the Armed Forces to prepare for any eventualities; and I trust that in the interests of both the Cuban people and the Soviet technicians at the sites, the hazards to all concerned of continuing this threat will be recognized.

Third: It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.

Fourth: As a necessary military precaution I have reinforced our base at Guantanamo, evacuated today the dependents of our personnel there, and ordered additional military units to be on a standby alert basis.

Fifth: We are calling tonight for an immediate meeting of the Organ of Consultation, under the Organization of American States, to consider this threat to hemispheric security and to invoke articles six and eight of the Rio Treaty in support of all necessary action. The United Nations Charter allows for regional security arrangements-and the nations of this Hemisphere decided long ago against the military presence of outside powers. Our other allies around the world have also been alerted.

Sixth: Under the Charter of the United Nations, we are asking tonight that an emergency meeting of the Security Council be convoked without delay to take action against this latest Soviet threat to world peace. Our resolution will call for the prompt dismantling and withdrawal of all offensive weapons in Cuba, under the supervision of United Nations observers, before the quarantine can be lifted.

Seventh and finally: I call upon Chairman Khrushchev to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless, and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations. I call upon him further to abandon this course of world domination and to join in an historic effort to end the perilous arms race and transform the history of man. He has an opportunity now to move the world back from the abyss of destruction-by returning to his Government's own words that it had no need to station missiles outside its own territory, and withdrawing these weapons from Cuba - by refraining from any action which will widen or deepen the present crisis-and then by participating in a search for peaceful and permanent solutions ...”

<end quoted excerpt>
The speech: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1...nedy-cuba.html


1948 ~ Egyptian flagship “King Farouk” sunk by Israel
An explosive-laden motorboat (Israeli) sank the Egyptian corvette “King Farouk” at about 22193O Z.

1914 ~ Revenue Act - first U.S. income tax
The Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act enabled an across-the-board reduction in tariffs, making manufacturers more efficient and providing consumers with competitive pricing.
The new tariff act also provided for the reinstitution of a federal income tax as a means to compensate for anticipated lost revenue because of the reduction of tariff duties. The most recent effort to tax incomes (Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894) had been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. That obstacle, however, was removed by ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment on February 3, 1913. The incomes of couples exceeding $4,000, as well as those of single persons earning $3,000 or more, were subject to a one percent federal tax. Further, the measure provided a progressive tax structure, meaning that high income earners were required to pay at higher rates. It would require only a few years for the federal income tax to become the chief source of income for the government, far outdistancing tariff revenues.


1819 ~ Erie Canal opens
The middle section of Erie Canal (96 miles) opened from Utica to Rome.
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Old 23-10-2006, 03:21   #115
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October 23

2003 ~ Madame Chiang Kai-shek (Soong Mei-ling ) dies at 105
Born in China and educated in the United States, Soong Mei-ling married Chiang Kai-shek in 1927 and went on to become an internationally famous advocate for her husband's Chinese Nationalist government.

1944 ~ Gulf of Leyte (last major Naval battle of WW II)
The Battle of Leyte Gulf, Phillipines, was one of the largest naval battles in history. Allied navies inflicted a major defeat on the outnumbered Imperial Japanese Navy. By the time the Battle of Leyte Gulf ended, with the utter destruction of the last of the Imperial Japanese Navy’s aircraft carriers in Ozawa’s Northern Force, Japan ceased to be a naval power. Although Kurita’s Center Force had escaped relatively intact with its battleships and most of its cruisers fully operational, the Imperial Japanese Navy never ventured out again in force to challenge the now omnipotently and overwhelmingly powerful American Navy.

1871 ~ “Sappho” (US) beats “Livonia” (Br)
More: http://www.americascup.com/en/acclop...idContent=4629

1844 ~ Louis Riel (Manitoba Métis leader) born

1805 ~ Sailing ship "Aeneus" sinks off Newfoundland (340 die)

1702 ~ Battle in Bay of Vigo
The naval Battle of Vigo Bay (or Battle of Rande) was fought on 23 October 1702 during the War of the Spanish Succession at Vigo Bay in Galicia (Spain) between an Anglo-Dutch fleet commanded by Admiral Sir George Rooke (with Lieutenant-Admiral Philips van Almonde commanding the Dutch squadron), and a combined French and Spanish fleet commanded by Admirals François Louis Rousselet de Chateau-Renault and Manuel de Velasco. 2,000 men from the Hispano-French Squad and 800 from the Anglo-Dutch lost their lives in San Simon's inlet.
More: http://www.arrakis.es/~rojea/rande/rooke.htm


1588 ~ Medina Sidonia's Spanish Armada returns to Santander
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Old 24-10-2006, 03:54   #116
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October 24

1995 ~ Total solar eclipse in SW/S Asia (2 min. 09 sec.)
More: http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/eclipse/951024/rp.html

1988 ~ Typhoon “Ruby” sinks Philippine ferry “Dona Marilyn” (hundreds drown)
More than 500 passengers were reported missing after a ferry sank in the storm, and officials feared most had drowned. The storm left at least 100 others dead and 50,000 homeless.
More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhoon_Ruby


1970 ~ Salvador Allende Gossens elected president of Chile
Salvador Allende, an avowed Marxist, becomes president of Chile after being confirmed by the Chilean congress. For the next three years, the United States would exert tremendous pressure to try to destabilize and unseat the Allende government. In 1973, A military coup overthrew Allende, and assassinated (?) him.

1956 ~ Soviet troops invade Hungary
More: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB76/

1951 ~ “Official” end of U.S. war with Germany

1945 - The United Nations Charter comes into effect
The United Nations Charter, which was adopted and signed on June 26, 1945, is now effective and ready to be enforced.

1929 ~ "Black Thursday” - Dow Jones down 12.8%
Less than a week before the crash of 1929, Wall Street suffered through "Black Thursday." During a day of frantic action, stock prices plummeted, and investors on the New York Stock Exchange dumped 13 million shares. Despite the best efforts of J.P. Morgan and other wealthy investors, Black Thursday proved to be but a preview of the even more difficult times ahead for Wall Street.
More: http://sweb.uky.edu/~msunde00/hon202/p4/nyt.html


1775 ~ British naval fleet turned back at Norfolk, Virginia
Lord John Murray Dunmore, orders a British naval fleet (under British Captain Matthew Squire) of six ships to sail up the James River and into Hampton Creek to attack Patriot troops and destroy the town of Norfolk, Virginia. The British were surprised to come under fire from expert riflemen, who began striking down British troops at a distance; and pushed the British back to their ships. Facing a humiliating defeat at the hands of an outnumbered local militia, Captain Squire ordered a full British retreat. In the unorganized and hurried withdrawal that followed, two British ships ran aground and were captured. The Patriots, meanwhile, did not suffer a single fatality.

1648 ~ Treaty of Westphalia ends Thirty Years War
The Treaty of Westphalia is signed, ending the Thirty Years War and radically shifting the balance of power in Europe. As a result of the Treaty, the Netherlands gained independence from Spain, Sweden gained control of the Baltic and France was acknowledged as the preeminent Western power. The power of the Holy Roman Emperor was broken and the German states were again able to determine the religion of their lands.
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Old 25-10-2006, 02:48   #117
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October 25

1983 ~ Operation “Urgent Fury” - U.S.A. invades Grenada
The initial assault consisted of some 1,200 troops, and they were met by stiff resistance from the Grenadian army and Cuban military units on the island. Heavy fighting continued for several days, but as the invasion force grew to more than 7,000, the defenders either surrendered or fled into the mountains. Scattered fighting continued as U.S. troops hunted down stragglers, but for the most part, the island quickly fell under American control. By mid-December, U.S. combat forces went home and a pro-American government took power.
Casualties: U.S.: 19 dead (officially). Grenada: 49 dead and several hundred wounded. Cuba: 29 dead and over a hundred wounded.
More: http://www.globalsecurity.org/milita...rgent_fury.htm


1971~ The U.N. seats the People's Republic of China, and expels Taiwan

1918 ~ Canadian steamship "Princess Sophia" sinks at Vanderbilt reef Alaska (398 die)
[size=1]The PRINCESS SOPHIA stranded on Vanderbilt Reef in October 1918 during a storm, eventually sliding into deep water and killing all aboard.
More: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/sos/...31-5100-e.html
And: http://www.shipwreckcentral.com/about6.htm#2

1906 ~ U.S. inventor Lee de Forest patents "Audion"
More: http://www.cedmagic.com/history/deforest-audion.html

1859 ~ Merchant vessel “Royal Charter” runs aground at Liverpool (459 die)
More: http://www.royalcharterchurch.org.uk/wreck.html

1854 ~ Battle of Balaklava, Crimean War (409 die)
Lord James Cardigan leads a charge of the Light Brigade cavalry against well-defended Russian artillery during the Crimean War. The British were winning the Battle of Balaclava when Cardigan received his order to attack the Russians. His cavalry gallantly charged down the valley, and were decimated by the heavy Russian guns, suffering 40 percent casualties (118 men killed, 127 wounded, and 362 horses lost). It was later revealed that the order was the result of confusion and was not given intentionally. Lord Cardigan, who survived the battle, was hailed as a national hero in Britain.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson latyer wrote his famous poem, “Charge of Light Brigade”, memorializing the events at Balaklava.


1415 ~ Battle of Agincourt
During the Hundred Years' War between England and France, Henry V, the young king of England, leads his forces to victory at the Battle of Agincourt, in northern France. Almost 6,000 Frenchmen lost their lives during the battle, while English deaths amounted to just over 400.
More: http://www.geocities.com/beckster05/.../AgBattle.html
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Old 26-10-2006, 02:27   #118
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October 26

2001 ~ George W. Bush signs the “Patriot Act”
The USA PATRIOT Act, as it is officially known, is an acronym for "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism." The Republican-controlled Congress passed, and Bush signed a renewal of the controversial Patriot Act in March 2006.

1998 ~ Hurricane Mitch slams into Central America
In total, somewhere between 11,000 and 18,000 people are believed to have died because of the hurricane, making Hurricane Mitch the most deadly storm since the Great Hurricane of 1780. Nearly 1 million people lost their homes and the region suffered an estimated $4 billion in damages.
More: http://www.osei.noaa.gov/mitch.html


1976 ~ Trinidad and Tobago becomes a republic

1966 ~ U.S. aircraft carrier “Oriskany” catches fire at Gulf of Tonken (43 die)
The accident occurred when a locker filled with night illumination magnesium flares burst into flame. The fire spread quickly through most of the 42,000 ton ship, resulting in 35 officers and eight enlisted men killed and a further 16 injured. The loss of life would have been much higher except for the valor of crewmen who pushed 300 500-pound, 1,000-pound, and 2,000-pound bombs that lay within reach of the flames on the hangar deck overboard. The fire destroyed four fighter-bombers and two helicopters, but it was brought under control after three hours.

1950 ~ Mother Teresa founds her Mission of Charity in Calcutta, India
More: http://www.catholic.net/hope_healing...?channel_id=22

1942 ~ The United States loses the Hornet (CV-8)
The last U.S. carrier manufactured before America's entry into World War II, the “Hornet”, is damaged so extensively by Japanese war planes in the Battle of Santa Cruz (Guadalcanal) that it must be abandoned.

1938 ~ Du Pont named its new synthetic fiber "nylon"

1863 ~ International Red Cross organized in Geneva
More: http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/p...s-history.html

1366 ~ Comet 55P/1366 U1 (Tempel-Tuttle) approaches 0.0229 AUs of Earth
More: http://www.lowell.edu/users/farnham/tt/tthist.html
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Old 27-10-2006, 02:44   #119
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October 27

1985 ~ T/S “Juan” becomes Hurricane (63 die)
Although only a category 1 hurricane, Juan ranks as the 8th costliest hurricane to strike the U.S. mainland. Juan's looping track made initial landfall on October 29 over south-central Louisiana. Rainfall totals from 5-10 inches caused flooding across coastal Texas, Louisiana and other regions of the southeastern U.S. Total damage was estimated at $1.5 billion dollars.

1982 ~ China announces its population at 1 billion people plus

1969 ~ Ralph Nader sets up a consumer organization known as Nader's Raiders
More: http://www.nader.org/history/bollier_chapter_1.html

1967 ~ Expo '67 ("Man & His World") closes in Montreal, Canada
Expo 67 was the most spectacular of Canada's 100th anniversary celebrations. When the Montreal Universal and International Exposition of 1967 opened on April 27, it was a gleaming futuristic spectacle and a dazzling international success. On two giant islands in the St. Lawrence River more than 50 million visitors were presented with a vision of the future. The only buildings remaining in use on the Expo grounds are the Buckminister Fuller dome (now operating as a museum called Biosphère) and the Habitat '67 residences. Also, the French and Quebec pavilions are now part of the Montreal Casino.

1919 ~ U.S. Congress passes Volstead Act
The National Prohibition Act of 1919 (more popularly known as the Volstead Act, ch. 85, 41 Stat. 305) enforced the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, dealing with the prohibition of alcohol.

1914 ~ British battleship HMS “Audacious” sunk by mine
The first major warship casualty of World War I, HMS “Audacious” struck a German moored mine on her port side, a short distance from the safe entrance of Lough Swilly North West Ireland. As part of an impressive fleet in line ahead she was preparing to engage in target practice with her 13.5" guns. Sea conditions were considered rough, and it didn't take long for the battleship to fill with water. Audacious was approached by the passing White Star liner Olympic and taken into tow; however after several unsuccessful attempts she was lost - sinking in 215ft.

1864 ~ Confederate ship CSS “Albemarle” sinks
More: http://www.history.navy.mil/docs/civilwar/64-10-30.htm

1728 ~ British Navigator and Explorer Captain James Cook born
More: http://www.mariner.org/educationalad/ageofex/cook.php
And: http://txtx.essortment.com/historyofcapta_ryiu.htm


1492 ~ Christopher Columbus discovers Cuba and claims it for Spain
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Old 28-10-2006, 06:03   #120
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October 28

1999 ~ Cyclone “05B” intensifies near India (10,000 die)
Tropical Cyclone 05B developed in the Bay of Bengal on the 28th, and moved inland near Brahampur, India the next day with maximum sustained winds near 65 km/hr (35 knots or 40 mph). Locally heavy rainfall affected the eastern states of India. It was the deadliest storm in the Indian Ocean since a 1991 storm that killed more than 130,000 people.

1992 ~ Lee Jang Rim predicts that today would be the end of the world!
Lee Jang Rim, a Korean Christian pastor, taught that the Rapture would occur on this date, at 10:00 AM EST. It didn't happen; and many of his followers allegedly committed suicide.

1961 ~ Chuck Berry goes on trial for the second time
The second so-called "Apache trial" begins for rock & roller Chuck Berry. Although his earlier conviction for transporting a minor across state lines for immoral purposes in violation of the Mann Act was thrown out on appeal, the prosecution decided to retry Berry.
Chuck Berry was one of the biggest pop stars of the late 1950s when he began to have legal problems. While charges in yet another Mann Act violation were pending (which were dismissed in 1960), Berry met Janice Escalante, a Native American with roots in the Apache tribe, in a bar in El Paso, Texas. According to Berry, who took the young woman on the road with his traveling rock show, Escalante claimed to be 21 years old. After there was a falling out between the two, Escalante complained about Berry to the authorities.
During his second trial, the prosecution produced a birth certificate proving that Escalante was a mere 14 years old. Berry was convicted and sentenced to three years in prison. After a short stretch in Leavenworth Federal Prison, he was transferred to a Missouri jail, where he spent his time studying accounting and writing songs. Among the songs he wrote before his release from prison in October 1963 were "No Particular Place to Go" and "You Never Can Tell," later memorialized in the film Pulp Fiction.
Berry was 80 years old last week.


1953 ~ Bud Grant of the CFL’s Winnipeg Blue Bombers intercepts a record 5 passes

1918 ~ German sailors mutiny
The German naval command, led by the Admiralty’s chief of staff Reinhardt Scheer, decided to launch a last-ditch effort against the British in the North Sea in a desperate attempt to restore the German navy’s prestige. In the words of Reinhardt Scheer, chief of staff of the German Admiralty, "An honorable battle by the fleet, even if it should be a fight to the death, will sow the seed of a new German fleet of the future. There can be no future for a fleet fettered by a dishonorable peace." Choosing not to inform the chancellor, Max von Baden, of its plans, the German Admiralty issued the order to leave port on October 28.
The sailors themselves, however, believing the attack to be a suicide mission, would have none of it. Though the order was given five times, each time they resisted. In total, 1,000 mutineers were arrested, leaving the Imperial Fleet immobilized. By October 30, the resistance had engulfed the German naval base at Kiel, where sailors and industrial workers alike took part in the rebellion; within a week, it had spread across the country, with revolts in Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck on November 4 and 5 and in Munich two days later.


1886 ~ Statue of Liberty dedicated by President Grover Cleveland

1746 ~ Peruvian cities of Lima and Callao demolished by earthquake (18,000 die)
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