Consider the source and assess it critically.
Credibility is the level of trustworthiness and authority that a reader perceives a writer has on a subject.
Since anyone with Internet
access can publish on the Web, it is essential to evaluate Web sources.
Evaluating the authority and credibility (believability) of sources of information can be a complex task, so be wary of making unsupportable conclusions, based on a narrow range, of sources, or those of dubious quality.
A source who is considered credible by some people, might not be considered credible by others. Likewise, the same source might be considered credible in certain situations and not in others. .
So what kinds of factors are involved in assessing credibility? The following guidelines are intended to help you become familiar with various types of Internet
resources, and help you develop the capability of recognizing what information is (more) reliable and what is not (or less).
1. Is there any evidence that the author of the Web information has some authority in the field about which she or he is providing information? What are the author's qualifications, credentials and connections to the subject?
2. With what organization or institution is the author associated? Is there a link to the sponsoring organization, a contact number and/or address or e-mail contact? A link to an association does not necessarily mean that the organization approved the content.
3. Does the author have publications in peer reviewed (scholarly and professional) publications, on the Web or in hard copy? (If an author does not have peer reviewed articles published, this does not mean that she or he does not have credible information, only that there has been no professional "test" of the author's authority on that subject.)
4. Are there clues that the author/s are biased? For example, is he/she selling or promoting a product? Is the author taking a personal stand on a social/political issue or is the author being objective ? Bias is not necessarily "bad," but the connections should be clear.
5. Is the Web information current
? If there are a number of out-of-date links that do not work or old news, what does this say about the credibility of the information?
6. Does the information have a complete list of works cited, which reference credible, authoritative sources? If the information is not backed up with sources, what is the author's relationship to the subject to be able to give an "expert" opinion?
7. Can the subject you are researching be fully covered with WWW sources, or should print sources provide balance? Much scholarly research
is still only available in traditional print form. It is safe to assume that if you have limited background in a topic and have a limited amount of time to do your research
, you may not be able to get the most representative material on the subject. So be wary of making unsupportable conclusions based on a narrow range of sources, or those of dubious quality. One should always double-check the accuracy of important facts, regardless of the source.
8. On what kind of Web site does the information appear? The site can often give you clues about the credibility of the source.
Here are some types of Web sites:
Personal Home Pages - maintained by individuals. Individuals can post their resumes, link to favorite sites, showcase their interests and ideas. Some personal Web sites also serve as professional sites. For example, many professors publish their syllabi, course material and, in some cases, their scholarship, on their personal Web pages. Entrepreneurs often advertise their services on "home" pages.
Special interest sites - maintained by non-profit organizations or activists dealing with special issues, such as environmental concerns. Special interest sites are, by their nature, biased. When using such sources, your readers should be aware of the source's special interest.
Professional sites - maintained by institutions/organizations, sometimes by individuals. They can include research, reference sources, fact sheets
. Many institutions provide such services to the public.
News and Journalistic sites (E-zines) - which include national, international news, online newspapers, magazines, and "homegrown" Web publications. Anyone can publish his or her own "news," on the Web. What do you know about, or what can you find out about, the reputation of the periodical? Is it an electronic version of a credible print publication?
sites - Although many legitimate businesses have Websites, some are not legitimate. Companies, with good and bad reputations, are in the business of making money
and acquiring and keeping customers. They are naturally biased in favor of their own products, so watch out for inflated claims for performance and quality. Companies will not showcase their competitors' products. Many entrepreneurs use "rented" Web space to create their own Web sites to sell their services or products - buyer beware!