You are right there are many ways of building boats and the people in the know use acronyms.
Apart form metal and ferro
boat construction there is:
Planked, carvel type
Planked, clinker type
Plywood, with or without a fibreglass/epoxy sheating (as protection for the ply)
Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) or Fibreglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP), are generic terms for fibreglass boats. Sometime one sees the “P” (for plastics) referred to as “Polymers”, in fact that is really a better name. Such material has two building ingredients:
Resins (with additives and hardener)
As far as resin concerns these are the main types but each type will have hundreds of subtypes/brands etc
- Ortho (phthalic) resin, this should not be used for under water
use, think blisters
- Iso (phthalic) resin, better than above for marine
Vinyl-ester, best of the polyester resin types, no blisters
and much stronger
- Epoxy resin
As far as fibres:
Most common is fibreglass (chopped mat, woven, cloth, Bi axial, tri axial, E glass, S glass and much much more
Kevlar fibres, very uncommon, and then only used sparingly to help market the boat, OK just a bit cynical here.
Carbon fibres, the bees knees for owners with deep pockets
Then are there hulls (and decks) that made are out of composite materials. Composite meaning made out of different materials. Often such hulls/decks are said to be cored: ie an outer layer of FRP, then a core, and then again a layer of FRP (or any of the above materials). Such thick construction can be extremely strong and light at the same time.
The following is used as a core:
- Strip planking ie cedar, ie relatively easy for one offs, and home building
- Various kinds of foam
- Various kind of honeycomb material
Many many other products
There are many brand names. When you know the product in the core, goto their website and find out the properties of such material.
Oops, noted that "Factor" already replied, well, now you have the info twice