Indeed there are turbo versions of the same basic engines however, there are some crucial internal differences; Remember, your engine will be operating at a heavier sustained load than say, a highway vehicle. Cruising, at highway speeds, is actually a very light load. Your boat has much more drag, thus higher loads for longer periods.
Unlike gas engines, diesels are "compression ignition" engines, very efficient.
The injectors and pumps may well be the same, externally, but they are set up to deliver fuel to the engine quite differently; in some cases they are also equipped with devices to match the fuel delivery
to the amount of air being pumped in by the turbo, under varying load conditions, not necessarily commensurate with RPM.
The increased combustion chamber temperatures, generated by turbo engines, often demands additional cooling oil
be directed up under the combustion chamber, in the piston crown.
Higher output versions may also employ intake air coolers to control the combustion air temperature.
It is quite common to add a small degree of turbo boost, to diesel engines operating in higher altitudes, without the addition of a lot of these items but, really all they are doing is to compensate for the reduced air density. Essentially, in your case, this is what you'd be doing. It is highly unlikely that your gain would exceed the pain, so to speak. Hope that helps?