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Old 15-12-2010, 02:33   #16
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I think some baffles in the tank may be of more use. If its that bigger problem, make sure the fuel filter/s are in a nice and easy access point and you can clean/replace them anytime.


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Old 15-12-2010, 02:56   #17
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Quote:
Originally Posted by At sea View Post
It's a common experience for fuel problems to emerge in a choppy sea because of the disturbance to the crud at the bottom of the tank.

Which reminds me of an approach a local old salt took to the problem years ago and still swears by it. And that is to run the fuel line from the lowest point in the tank. The idea is that the crud doesn't build up but rather comes through all the time. It just means cleaning your fuel filter more often, but that's nothing. And it means you know the tank is clean and that you'll never strike the problem of your engine cutting out in choppy conditions close by the rocks.

I liked the idea and recently set it up on one of my vessels but haven't had enough time to evaluate yet. But what do others reckon; is it worth some thought?

There is a fallacy in the old salts thought. Most tank pick up tubes have always been located right at the bottom of the tank. Now more are built higher. But it makes zero difference where it is located if a tank is accumulating crude. If the pick up tube is on the bottom the suction is so minute that if it picks up anything it will only be in a very small area around the intake. A lot of crude sticks loosely on the bottom of the tank mostly and some on the sides and will stay there in calm water. Once you start sloshing around in heavy water the crude breaks loose and regardless of where your pick up is located it will suck up the crud.
Constant vigilance and a good filtering system is really the only answer.
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Old 15-12-2010, 04:59   #18
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Originally Posted by delmarrey View Post
One down fall of your idea!
An outlet at the bottom of the tank is dangerous let alone against the ABYC/USCG advice. The pickup tubes are to come from the top and stop about 1/2-3/4" from the bottom, don't remember for sure but here's the doc. to read for yourself.
The way I read it delmarry, those rulings apply to gasoline tanks. Got my attention though because I don't think I've ever seen a diesel tank without a bottom drain plug.
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Old 15-12-2010, 05:28   #19
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A lot of crude sticks loosely on the bottom of the tank mostly and some on the sides and will stay there in calm water. Once you start sloshing around in heavy water the crude breaks loose and regardless of where your pick up is located it will suck up the crud. Constant vigilance and a good filtering system is really the only answer.
That seems a reasonable hypothesis for boats which spend a lot of time on moorings and then get caught out in some weather. But for boats which go out regularly, the sludge etc would likely remain suspended rather than deposited on the bottom and sides of the tank. Thus it should more consistently find its way to the fuel filters which can be regularly and easily cleaned.

And thereby prevent a surprise like the one Hummingway described in his thread this morning.

That's the old salt's theory anyway; from the responses so far, I don't reckon it's been entirely dismantled yet.
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Old 15-12-2010, 06:37   #20
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Fuel Valencer?

www.combustivecontrolsystems.us

Never seen one......
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Old 15-12-2010, 06:53   #21
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I've started using Startron. Anyone else use this stuff?

Star Tron Enzyme Fuel Treatment - HOME
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Old 15-12-2010, 07:04   #22
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Fuel Valencer?

www.combustivecontrolsystems.us

Never seen one......
What do you think? The web site is a little thin on facts and figures and long on scientific gobbledygook. Could be nothing more than snake oil but if true could have some merit.
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Old 15-12-2010, 07:58   #23
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Both our westerly and Wauquiez have their fuel pickups at the bottom of one of the sides - perhaps a cm or two from the bottom.

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Quote:
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The way I read it delmarry, those rulings apply to gasoline tanks. Got my attention though because I don't think I've ever seen a diesel tank without a bottom drain plug.
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Old 15-12-2010, 08:19   #24
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Quote:
Originally Posted by At sea View Post
The way I read it delmarry, those rulings apply to gasoline tanks. Got my attention though because I don't think I've ever seen a diesel tank without a bottom drain plug.
Actually the diesel tanks that are constructed of FRG as part of the hull do not have bottom drains. They only have large plates on the top with fittings for vents and tubes for pick-up. The tubes normally extend down close to the bottom but do not touch. Also all good tanks have a series of baffles built into the tank to reduce "sloshing" when underway.
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Old 15-12-2010, 08:46   #25
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Run the fuel low, open up the inspection ports, stick your arm in, wipe with paper towels. Takes half a day. If you go to a fuel dock (in the US) they'll even let you borrow 5 gallon tanks to dispose of old fuel (for a cost of ~1$ per 5 gallons, if they remember to charge you).

It's simple, you know the tank is clean, and even if you have a polishing system or whatever you still need to clean your tanks. And if your tanks are clean, you don't need to polish the fuel. My Racors are sitting there looking beautiful with nothing in the bowls and we were on a beat through some steep swells for several hours.

Edit: use an old cup or whatever to get the remaining diesel out, and then use a dipstick-style oil extraction pump to get the stuff in the bottom that you can't get with a cup. Wear gloves and an organic filter. Lots of air.
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Old 15-12-2010, 10:07   #26
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Chief Engineer View Post
Fuel Valencer?

www.combustivecontrolsystems.us

Never seen one......
This quote was from the news release page:
"Due to the CCS-FVM design and application of fundamental physical principles, an engineered Gauss field is directed at the diesel fuel contaminates as they flow through the Valencer. This results in the "cold fission" of particulate size that passes through the existing fuel filters and proceeds to complete combustion in the cylinders of the diesel engine."

To me that screams bull. It seems to me they are saying they apply a magnetic field to the fuel producing cold fission. Cold fission is not an event that would be easily produced, or measured if it were, and I don't understand what it would have to do with cleaning diesel fuel.
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Old 15-12-2010, 10:35   #27
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My fuel pickup goes to within an inch or so of the bottom of my 75 gal fibreglass tank, located under the engine. I added (glassed in) a separate copper tube into the top of the tank which extends all the way to the bottom, end of tube angled to about 30 degrees. It has a screw top fitting. If I want to drain sediment or just the entire tank, I can attach a garden hose fitting and use a little fuel transfer pump or whatever to drain.
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Old 15-12-2010, 13:24   #28
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The way I read it delmarry, those rulings apply to gasoline tanks. Got my attention though because I don't think I've ever seen a diesel tank without a bottom drain plug.
You may be right! I've spent a few hours in research and here is a load of documents that are related to diesel fuel and/or tanks. There's a huge amount on gasoline but that's another subject.
Diesel tanks seem to have a lot of exemptions to gasoline tanks. So enjoy the read and be sure to discriminate between gas and diesel in the lines. some of it is mixed. This is all I could find related to diesel!


Quote:
46 C.F.R. §*56.50-75***Diesel fuel systems.

Title 46: Shipping
PART 56—PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES 
Subpart 56.50—Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems
Browse Previous*|* Browse Next
§*56.50-75***Diesel fuel systems.
(a) Vessels greater than 100 gross tons. (1) The diesel fuel system shall comply with §§56.50–60, 56.50–85, and 56.50–90. The fuel supply piping to engines shall be of seamless steel, annealed seamless copper or brass pipe or tubing, or of nickel copper or copper nickel alloy meeting the requirements of subpart 56.60 for materials and §56.50–70(a)(2) for thickness. Fuel oil service or unit pumps shall be equipped with controls to comply with §58.01–25 of this subchapter.
(2) The installation shall comply with §56.50–70(b).
(3) Tubing connections and fittings shall be drawn or forged metal of the flared type except that flareless fittings of the nonbite type may be used when the tubing system is steel, nickel-copper, or copper-nickel. When making flared tube connections the tubing shall be cut square and flared by suitable tools. Tube ends shall be annealed before flaring.
(b) Vessels of 100 gross tons and less and tank barges—(1) Materials. Fuel supply piping shall be of copper, nickel copper or copper nickel having a minimum wall thickness of 0.035 inch except that piping of other materials such as seamless steel pipe or tubing which provides equivalent safety may be used.
(2) Tubing connections and fittings. Tubing connections shall comply with the provisions of §56.50–75(a)(3).
(3) Installation. The installation of diesel fuel piping shall comply with the requirements of §56.50–70(b).
(4) Shutoff valves. Shutoff valves shall be installed in the fuel supply lines, one as close to each tank as practicable, and one as close to each fuel pump as practicable. Valves shall be accessible at all times.
(5) Outlets and drains. Valves for removing water or impurities from fuel oil systems will be permitted in the machinery space provided such valves are fitted with caps or plugs to prevent leakage.
(6) Filling pipe. Tank filling pipes on motorboats and motor vessels of less than 100 gross tons and tank barges shall terminate on an open deck and shall be fitted with suitable shutoff valves, deck plugs, or caps.
(7) Vent pipes. Each tank shall be fitted with a vent pipe complying with §56.50–85.
(8) Independent diesel fuel tanks. See subpart 58.50 of this subchapter for specific requirements.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18843, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGD 77–140, 54 FR 40610, Oct. 2, 1989]
Quote:
46 C.F.R. §*58.50-10***Diesel fuel tanks.
(a) Construction. (1) Tanks may be of either cylindrical or rectangular form.
(2) The materials used and the minimum thickness allowed in the construction of independent fuel tanks shall be as indicated in Table 58.50–10(a), except that consideration will be given to other materials which provide equivalent safety as indicated in §58.50–15.
(3) Tanks with flanged-up top edges, that may trap and hold moisture, shall not be used.
Table 58.50-10(a) Thickness in inches and gage numbers \1\ vs. tank A.S.T.M. capacities for specification Material (latest edition) More than 80- and [see also §1- through 80- not more than 150- Over 150-gallon 58.03-1] gallon tanks gallon tanks tanks \2\-Aluminum \5\... B209, Alloy 5086 0.250 (USSG 3).... 0.250 (USSG 3).... 0.250 (USSG 3). \6\.Nickel-copper… B127, Hot rolled 0.037 (USSG 20) 0.050 (USSG 18)... 0.107 (USSG 12). sheet or plate. \3\.Steel or iron \4\... 0.0747 (MfgStd 14) 0.1046 (MfgStd 12) 0.179 (MfgStd 7).-- \1\ Gages used are U.S. standard ``USSG'' for nickel-copper and ``MfgStd'' for steel or iron.\2\ Tanks over 400 gallons shall be designed with a factor of safety of four on the ultimate strength of the material used with design head of not less than 4 feet of liquid above the top of the tank.\3\ Nickel-copper not less than 0.031 inch (USSG 22) may be used for tanks up to 30-gallon capacity.\4\ For diesel tanks the steel or iron shall not be galvanized on the interior.\5\ Anodic to most common metals. Avoid dissimilar metal contact with tank body.\6\ And other alloys acceptable to the Commandant

(4) Openings for fill and vent pipes must be on the topmost surface of a tank. There must be no openings in the bottom, sides, or ends of a tank except as follows:
(i) The opening for the fuel supply piping is not restricted to the top of the tank.
(ii) An opening fitted with threaded plug or cap may be used on the bottom of the tank for tank cleaning purposes.
(iii) Liquid level gages must penetrate at a point that is more than 2 inches from the bottom of the tank.
(5) All tank joints shall be welded.
(6) Nozzles, flanges, or other fittings for pipe connections shall be welded or brazed to the tank. The tank opening in way of pipe connections shall be properly reinforced where necessary. Where liquid level indicating devices are attached to the tank, they shall be of heat resistant materials adequately protected from mechanical damage and provided at the tank connections with devices which will automatically close in the event of rupture of the gage or gage lines.
(7) All tanks exceeding 30 inches in any horizontal dimension shall be fitted with vertical baffle plates where necessary for strength or for control of excessive surge. In general, baffle plates installed at intervals not exceeding 30 inches will be considered as meeting this requirement.
(8) Baffle plates, where required, shall be of the same material and not less than the minimum thickness required in the tank walls and shall be connected to the tank walls by welding or brazing. Limber holes at the bottom and air holes at the top of all baffle plates shall be provided.
(9) Iron or steel tanks shall not be galvanized on the interior. Galvanizing paint or other suitable coating shall be used to protect the outside of iron and steel tanks.
(b) Installation. (1) Tanks containing fuel for emergency lighting units shall be located on an open deck or in an adequately ventilated metal compartment. No tank shall be located in a compartment where the temperature may exceed 150 °F.
(2) When cylindrical tanks are installed, longitudinal seams shall be located as near the top of the tank as possible. Fuel tanks shall be located in, or as close as practicable, to the machinery space which is served.
(3) Fuel tanks shall be so installed as to permit examination, testing, or removal for cleaning.
(4) Fuel tanks shall be adequately supported and braced to prevent movement. Portable tanks are not permitted.
(5) All fuel tanks shall be electrically bonded to the common ground.
(c) Tests. (1) Prior to installation, tanks vented to the atmosphere shall be tested to and must withstand a pressure of 5 pounds per square inch or 11/2 times the maximum head to which they may be subjected in service, whichever is greater. A standpipe of 111/2 feet in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the 5 pounds per square inch test. Permanent deformation of the tank will not be cause for rejection unless accompanied by leakage.
(2) After installation of the fuel tank on a vessel the complete installation shall be tested in the presence of a marine inspector to a head not less than that to which the tank may be subjected in service. Fuel may be used as a testing medium.
(3) All tanks not vented to atmosphere shall be constructed and tested in accordance with part 54 of this subchapter.
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18878, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGFR 69–127, 35 FR 9980, June 17, 1970; CGFR 72–59R, 37 FR 6190, Mar. 25, 1972; USCG–1999–5151, 64 FR 67180, Dec. 1, 1999]
§*58.50-15***Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks.
(a) Materials other than those specifically listed in Table 58.50–5(a) and in Table 58.50–10(a) may be used for fuel tank construction only if the tank as constructed meets the testing requirements of Marine Department, Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (formerly Yacht Safety Bureau) STD E–3, paragraph E3–3. Testing may be accomplished by any acceptable laboratory, such as the Marine Department, Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (formerly Yacht Safety Bureau), or may be done by the fabricator if witnessed by a marine inspector.
(b) [Reserved]
[CGFR 68–82, 33 FR 18878, Dec. 18, 1968, as amended by CGFR 69–127, 35 FR 9980, June 17, 1970]
Quote:
46 C.F.R. PART 128—MARINE ENGINEERING: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS
§*128.310***Fuel.
top
(a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, each internal-combustion engine installed on an OSV, whether for main propulsion or for auxiliaries, must be driven by a fuel having a flashpoint of not lower than 43 °C (110 °F) as determined by ASTM D 93 (incorporated by reference, see §125.180).
(b) The use of a fuel with a flashpoint of lower than 43 °C (110 °F) must be specifically approved by the Commandant (G-MSE), except in an engine for a gasoline-powered rescue boat.
[CGD 82–004 and CGD 86–074, 62 FR 49331, Sept. 19, 1997, as amended by USCG–2000–7790, 65 FR 58463, Sept. 29, 2000]



46 C.F.R. 182.*** Subpart D—Specific Machinery Requirements

Subpart D—Specific Machinery Requirements

§*182.400***Applicability.
(a) This subpart applies to all propulsion and auxiliary machinery installations of the internal combustion piston type.
(b) Requirements of this subpart that are only applicable to engines that use gasoline or other fuels having a flashpoint of 43.3° C (110° F) or lower are specifically designated in each section.
(c) Requirements of this subpart that are only applicable to engines that use diesel fuel or other fuels having a flashpoint of more than 43.3° C (110° F) are specifically designated in each section.
(d) Where no specific gasoline, diesel, or other fuel designation exists, the requirements of this subpart are applicable to all types of fuels and machinery.


§*182.405***Fuel restrictions.
The use of alternative fuels, other than diesel fuel or gasoline, as fuel for an internal combustion engine will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis by the Commandant.
[CGD 85–080, 61 FR 986, Jan. 10, 1996, as amended by CGD 97–057, 62 FR 51050, Sept. 30, 1997]


§*182.410***General requirements.
(a) Starting motors, generators, and any spark producing device must be mounted as high above the bilges as practicable. Electrical equipment in spaces, compartments, or enclosures that contain machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline or other fuels having a flashpoint of 43.3° C (110° F) or lower must be explosion-proof, intrinsically safe, or ignition protected for use in a gasoline atmosphere as required by §183.530 of this chapter.
(b) Gauges to indicate engine revolutions per minute (RPM), jacket water discharge temperature, and lubricating oil pressure must be provided for all propulsion engines installed in the vessel. The gauges must be readily visible at the operating station.
(c) An enclosed space containing machinery powered by gasoline or other fuels having a flash point of 43.3° C (110° F) or lower must be equipped with a flammable vapor detection device in compliance with §182.480.
(d) In systems and applications where flexible hoses are permitted to be clamped:
(1) Double hose clamping is required where practicable;
(2) The clamps must be of a corrosion resistant metallic material;
(3) The clamps must not depend on spring tension for their holding power; and
(4) Two clamps must be used on each end of the hose, or one hose clamp can be used if the pipe ends are expanded or beaded to provide a positive stop against hose slippage.
§*182.435***Integral fuel tanks.
(a) Gasoline fuel tanks must be independent of the hull.
(b) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with the hull of a vessel unless the hull is made of:
(1) Steel;
(2) Aluminum; or
(3) Fiber reinforced plastic when:
(i) Sandwich construction is not used; or
(ii) Sandwich construction is used with only a core material of closed cell polyvinyl chloride or equivalent.
(c) During the initial inspection for certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic pressure test of 35 kPa (5 psig), or the maximum pressure head to which they may be subjected in service, whichever is greater. A standpipe of 3.5 meters (11.5 feet) in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the 35 kPa (5 psig) test.
[CGD 85–080, 61 FR 986, Jan. 10, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 51358, Sept. 30, 1997]

§*182.440***Independent fuel tanks.
(a) Materials and construction. Independent fuel tanks must be designed and constructed of materials in compliance with the requirements of this paragraph.
(1) The material used and the minimum thickness allowed must be as indicated in Table 182.440(a)(1), except that other materials that provide equivalent safety may be approved for use under paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Tanks having a capacity of more than 570 liters (150 gallons) must be designed to withstand the maximum head to which they may be subjected in service, but in no case may the thickness be less than that specified in Table 182.440(a)(1).
(2) Fiber reinforced plastic may be used for diesel fuel tanks under the following provisions:
(i) The materials must be fire retardant. Flammability of the material must be determined by the standard test methods in America Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D635, “Rate of Burning and/or Extent and Time of Burning of Self-supporting Plastics in a Horizontal Position,” and ASTM D2863, “Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index),” or other standard specified by the Commandant. The results of these tests must show that the average extent of burning is less than 10 millimeters (0.394 inches), the average time of burning is less than 50 seconds, and the limiting oxygen index is greater than 21.
(ii) Tanks must meet UL 1102, “Non integral Marine Fuel Tanks,” or other standard specified by the Commandant. Testing may be accomplished by an independent laboratory or by the fabricator to the satisfaction of the OCMI.
(iii) Tanks must be designed to withstand the maximum heat to which they may be subjected to in service.
(iv) Installation of nozzles, flanges or other fittings for pipe connections to the tanks must be acceptable to the cognizant OCMI.
(v) Baffle plates, if installed, must be of the same material and not less than the minimum thickness of the tank walls. Limber holes at the bottom and air holes at the top of all baffles must be provided. Baffle plates must be installed at the time the tests required by UL Standard 1102, or other standard specified by the Commandant, are conducted.
(3) Materials other than those listed in Table 182.440(a)(1) must be approved by the Commandant. An independent tank using material approved by the Commandant under this paragraph must meet the testing requirements of UL Standard 1102, or other standard specified by the Commandant. Testing may be accomplished by an independent laboratory or by the fabricator to the satisfaction of the OCMI.
(4) Tanks with flanged-up top edges that may trap and hold moisture are prohibited.
(5) Openings for fill pipes, vent pipes, and machinery fuel supply pipes, and openings for fuel level gauges, where used, must be on the topmost surfaces of tanks. Tanks may not have any openings in bottoms, sides, or ends, except for:
(i) An opening fitted with a threaded plug or cap installed for tank cleaning purposes; and
(ii) In a diesel fuel tank, openings for supply piping and tubular gauge glasses.
(6) All tank joints must be welded or brazed. Lap joints may not be used.
(7) Nozzles, flanges, or other fittings for pipe connections to a metal tank must be welded or brazed to the tank. Tank openings in way of pipe connections must be properly reinforced where necessary. Where fuel level gauges are used on a metal tank, the flanges to which gauge fittings are attached must be welded or brazed to the tank. No tubular gauge glasses may be fitted to gasoline fuel tanks. Tubular gauge glasses, if fitted to diesel fuel tanks, must be of heat resistant materials, adequately protected from mechanical damage, and provided at the tank connections with devices that will automatically close in the event of rupture of the gauge or gauge lines.
(8) A metal tank exceeding 760 millimeters (30 inches) in any horizontal dimension must:
(i) Be fitted with vertical baffle plates, which meet subparagraph (a)(9) of this section, at intervals not exceeding 760 millimeters (30 inches) to provide strength and to control the excessive surge of fuel; or
(ii) The owner shall submit calculations to the cognizant OCMI demonstrating the structural adequacy of the tank in a fully loaded static condition and in a worst case dynamic (sloshing) condition.
(9) Baffle plates, where required in metal tanks, must be of the same material and not less than the minimum thickness required in the tank walls and must be connected to the tank walls by welding or brazing. Limber holes at the bottom and air holes at the top of all baffles must be provided.
(10) Iron or steel diesel fuel tanks must not be galvanized on the interior. Galvanizing, paint, or other suitable coating must be used to protect the outside of iron and steel diesel fuel tanks and the inside and outside of iron and steel gasoline fuel tanks.
(b) Location and installation. Independent fuel tanks must be located and installed in compliance with the requirements of this paragraph.
(1) Fuel tanks must be located in, or as close as practicable to, machinery spaces.
(2) Fuel tanks and fittings must be so installed as to permit examination, testing, or removal for cleaning with minimum disturbance to the hull structure.
(3) Fuel tanks must be adequately supported and braced to prevent movement. The supports and braces must be insulated from contact with the tank surfaces with a nonabrasive and nonabsorbent material.
(4) All fuel tanks must be electrically bonded to a common ground.
(c) Tests. Independent fuel tanks must be tested in compliance with the requirements of this part prior to being used to carry fuel.
(1) Prior to installation, tanks vented to the atmosphere must be hydrostatically tested to, and must withstand, a pressure of 35 kPa (5 psig) or 11/2 times the maximum pressure head to which they may be subjected in service, whichever is greater. A standpipe of 3.5 meters (11.5 feet) in height attached to the tank may be filled with water to accomplish the 35 kPa (5 psig) test. Permanent deformation of the tank will not be cause for rejection unless accompanied by leakage.
(2) After installation of the fuel tank on a vessel, the complete installation must be tested in the presence of a marine inspector, or individual specified by the cognizant OCMI, to a heat not less than that to which the tank may be subjected in service. Fuel may be used as the testing medium.
(3) All tanks not vented to the atmosphere must be constructed and tested in accordance with §182.330 of this part.
(d) Alternative procedures. A vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers, with independent gasoline fuel tanks built in accordance with ABYC Project H–24, or 33 CFR 183, subpart J, or with independent diesel fuel tanks built in accordance with ABYC Project H–33, will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section. However, tanks must not be fabricated from any material not listed in Table 182.440(a)(1) without approval by the Commandant under paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
[CGD 85–080, 61 FR 986, Jan. 10, 1996, as amended by USCG–1999–5151, 64 FR 67186, Dec. 1, 1999]


§*182.445***Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.
(a) Fill pipes for fuel tanks must be not less than 40 millimeters (1.5 inches) nominal pipe size.
(b) There must be a means of accurately determining the amount of fuel in each fuel tank either by sounding, through a separate sounding pipe or a fill pipe, or by an installed marine type fuel gauge.
(c) Where sounding pipes are used, their openings must be at least as high as the opening of the fill pipe and they must be kept closed at all times except during sounding.
(d) Fill pipes and sounding pipes must be so arranged that overflow of liquid or vapor cannot escape to the inside of the vessel.
(e) Fill pipes and sounding pipes must run as directly as possible, preferably in a straight line, from the deck connection to the top of the tank. Such pipes must terminate on the weather deck and must be fitted with shutoff valves, watertight deck plates, or screw caps, suitably marked for identification. Gasoline fill pipes and sounding pipes must extend to within one-half of their diameter from the bottom of the tank. Diesel fill pipes and sounding pipes may terminate at the top of the tank.
(f) A vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) carrying not more than 12 passengers, with a gasoline fuel system built in accordance with ABYC Project H–24, or 33 CFR 183, subpart J, or with a diesel fuel system built in accordance with ABYC Project H–33, will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section.
(g) Where a flexible fill pipe section is necessary, suitable flexible tubing or hose having high resistance to salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at the least 11/2 times the pipe diameter and must be secured at each end by clamps. The flexible section must be accessible and as near the upper end of the fill pipe as practicable. When the flexible section is a nonconductor of electricity, the metallic sections of the fill pipe separated thereby must be joined by a conductor for protection against generation of a static charge when filling with fuel.


§*182.450***Vent pipes for fuel tanks.
(a) Each unpressurized fuel tank must be fitted with a vent pipe connected to the highest point of the tank.
(b) The net cross sectional area of the vent pipe for a gasoline fuel tank must not be less than that of 19 millimeters (0.75 inches) outer diameter (O.D.) tubing (0.9 millimeter (0.035 Inch) wall thickness, 20 gauge), except that, where the tank is filled under pressure, the net cross sectional area of the vent pipe must be not less than that of the fill pipe.
(c) The minimum net cross sectional area of the vent pipe for diesel fuel tanks must be as follows:
(1) Not less than the cross sectional area of 16 millimeters (0.625 inches) outer diameter (O.D.) tubing (0.9 millimeter (0.035-inch) wall thickness, 20 gauge), if the fill pipe terminates at the top of the tank;
(2) Not less than the cross sectional area of 19 millimeters (0.75 inches) O.D. tubing (0.9 millimeter (0.035-inch) wall thickness, 20 gauge), if the fill pipe extends into the tank; and
(3) Not less than the cross sectional area of the fill pipe if the tank is filled under pressure.
(d) The discharge ends of fuel tank vent pipes must terminate on the hull exterior as high above the waterline as practicable and remote from any hull openings, or they must terminate in U-bends as high above the weather deck as practicable and as far as practicable from openings into any enclosed spaces. Vent pipes terminating on the hull exterior must be installed or equipped to prevent the accidental contamination of the fuel by water under normal operating conditions.
(e) The discharge ends of fuel tank vent pipes must be fitted with removable flame screens or flame arresters. The flame screens must consist of a single screen of corrosion resistant wire of at least 30×30 mesh. The flame screens or flame arresters must be of such size and design as to prevent reduction in the net cross sectional area of the vent pipe and permit cleaning or renewal of the flame screens or arrester elements.
(f) A vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers, with fuel gasoline tank vents built in accordance with ABYC Project H–24, or 33 CFR 183, subpart J, or with diesel fuel tank vents built in accordance with ABYC Project H–33, will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section.
(g) Where a flexible vent pipe section is necessary, suitable flexible tubing or hose having high resistance to salt water, petroleum oils, heat and vibration, may be used. Such hose must overlap metallic pipe ends at least 11/2 times the pipe diameter and must be secured at each end by clamps. The flexible section must be accessible and as near the upper end of the vent pipe as practicable.
(h) Fuel tank vent pipes shall be installed to gradient upward to prevent fuel from being trapped in the line.


§*182.455***Fuel piping.
(a) Materials and workmanship. The materials and construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply with the requirements of this paragraph.
(1) Fuel lines must be annealed tubing of copper, nickel-copper, or copper-nickel having a minimum wall thickness of 0.9 millimeters (0.035 inch) except that:
(i) Diesel fuel piping of other materials, such as seamless steel pipe or tubing, which provide equivalent safety may be used;
(ii) Diesel fuel piping of aluminum is acceptable on aluminum hull vessels provided it is a minimum of Schedule 80 wall thickness; and
(iii) when used, flexible hose must meet the requirements of §182.720(e) of this part.
(2) Tubing connections and fittings must be of nonferrous drawn or forged metal of the flared type except that flareless fittings of the non-bite type may be used when the tubing system is of nickel-copper or copper-nickel. When making tube connections, the tubing must be cut square and flared by suitable tools. Tube ends must be annealed before flaring.
(3) Cocks are prohibited except for the solid bottom type with tapered plugs and union bonnets.
(4) Valves for gasoline fuel must be of a suitable nonferrous type.
(b) Installation. The installation of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply with the requirements of this paragraph.
(1) Gasoline fuel lines must be connected at the top of the fuel tank and run at or above the level of the tank top to a point as close to the engine connection as practicable, except that lines below the level of the tank top are permitted if equipped with anti-siphon protection.
(2) Diesel fuel lines may be connected to the fuel tank at or near the bottom of the tank.
(3) Fuel lines must be accessible, protected from mechanical injury, and effectively secured against excessive movement and vibration by the use of soft nonferrous metal straps which have no sharp edges and are insulated to protect against corrosion. Where passing through bulkheads, fuel lines must be protected by close fitting ferrules or stuffing boxes. All fuel lines and fittings must be accessible for inspection.
(4) Shutoff valves, installed so as to close against the fuel flow, must be fitted in the fuel supply lines, one at the tank connection and one at the engine end of the fuel line to stop fuel flow when servicing accessories. The shutoff valve at the tank must be manually operable from outside the compartment in which the valve is located, preferably from an accessible position on the weather deck. If the handle to the shutoff valve at the tank is located inside the machinery space, it must be located so that the operator does not have to reach more than 300 millimeters (12 inches) into the machinery space and the valve handle must be shielded from flames by the same material the hull is constructed of, or some noncombustible material. Electric solenoid valves must not be used, unless used in addition to the manual valve.
(5) A loop of copper tubing or a short length of flexible hose must be installed in the fuel supply line at or near the engines. The flexible hose must meet the requirements of §182.720(e).
(6) A suitable metal marine type strainer, meeting the requirements of the engine manufacturer, must be fitted in the fuel supply line in the engine compartment. Strainers must be leak free. Strainers must be the type of opening on top for cleaning screens. A drip pan fitted with flame screen must be installed under gasoline strainers. Fuel filter and strainer bowls must be highly resistant to shattering due to mechanical impact and resistant to failure due to thermal shock. Fuel filters fitted with bowls of other than steel construction must be approved by the Commandant and be protected from mechanical damage. Approval of bowls of other than steel construction will specify if a flame shield is required.
(7) All accessories installed in the fuel line must be independently supported.
(8) Outlets in gasoline fuel lines that would permit drawing fuel below deck, for any purpose, are prohibited.
(9) Valves for removing water or impurities from diesel fuel in water traps or stainers are permitted. These valves must be provided with caps or plugs to prevent fuel leakage.
(c) Alternative procedures. A vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) carrying no more than 12 passengers, with machinery powered by gasoline and a fuel system built in accordance with ABYC Project H–24, or 33 CFR 183, subpart J, or with machinery powered by diesel fuel and a fuel system built in accordance with ABYC Project H–33, will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section.
[CGD 85–080, 61 FR 986, Jan. 10, 1996, as amended by USCG–2001–10224, 66 FR 48621, Sept. 21, 2001; USCG–2004–18884, 69 FR 58351, Sept. 30, 2004]


§*182.458***Portable fuel systems.
(a) Portable fuel systems, including portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories, are prohibited except where used for portable dewatering pumps or outboard motor installations.
(b) The design, construction and stowage of portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories must meet the requirements of ABYC Project H–25, “Portable Gasoline Fuel systems for Flammable Liquids,” or other standard specified by the Commandant.
[CGD 85–080, 61 FR 986, Jan. 10, 1996, as amended by CGD 97–057, 62 FR 51050, Sept. 30, 1997; CGD 85–080, 62 FR 51358, Sept. 30, 1997]


§*182.460***Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.
(a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline must have a ventilation system that complies with this section and consists of:
(1) For an enclosed space:
(i) At least two natural ventilation supply ducts located at one end of the space and that extend to the lowest part of the space or to the bilge on each side of the space; and
(ii) A mechanical exhaust system consisting of at least two ventilation exhaust ducts located at the end of the space opposite from where the supply ducts are fitted, which extend to the lowest part of the bilge of the space on each side of the space, and which are led to one or more powered exhaust blowers; and
(2) For a partially enclosed space, at least one ventilation duct installed in the forward part of the space and one ventilation duct installed in the after part of the space, or as otherwise required by the cognizant OCMI. Ducts for partially enclosed spaces must have cowls or scoops as required by paragraph (i) of this section.
(b) A mechanical exhaust system required by paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section must be such as to assure the air changes as noted in Table 182.460(b) depending upon the size of the space
(c) An exhaust blower motor may not be installed in a duct, and if mounted in any space required to be ventilated by this section, must be located as high above the bilge as practicable. Blower blades must be nonsparking with reference to their housings.
(d) Where a fixed gas fire extinguishing system is installed in a space, all powered exhaust blowers for the space must automatically shut down upon release of the extinguishing agent.
(e) Exhaust blower switches must be located outside of any space required to be ventilated by this section, and must be of the type interlocked with the starting switch and the ignition switch so that the blowers are started before the engine starter motor circuit or the engine ignition is energized. A red warning sign at the switch must state that the blowers must be operated prior to starting the engines for the time sufficient to insure at least one complete change of air in the space served.
(f) The area of the ventilation ducts must be sufficient to limit the air velocity to a maximum of 10 meters per second (2,000 feet per minute). A duct may be of any shape, provided that in no case will one cross sectional dimension exceed twice the other.
(g) A duct must be so installed that ordinary collection of water in the bilge will not block vapor flow.
(h) A duct must be of rigid permanent construction, which does not allow any appreciable vapor flow except through normal openings, and made of the same material as the hull or of noncombustible material. The duct must lead as directly as possible from its intake opening to its terminus and be securely fastened and supported.
(i) A supply duct must be provided at its intake opening with a cowl or scoop having a free area not less than twice the required duct area. When the cowl or scoop is screened, the mouth area must be increased to compensate for the area of the screen wire. A cowl or scoop must be kept open at all times except when the weather is such as to endanger the vessel if the openings are not temporarily closed.
(j) Dampers may not be fitted in a supply duct.
(k) A duct opening may not be located where the natural flow of air is unduly obstructed, adjacent to possible sources of vapor ignition, or where exhaust air may be taken into a supply duct.
(l) Provision must be made for closing all supply duct cowls or scoops and exhaust duct discharge openings for a space protected by a fixed gas extinguishing system. All closure devices must be readily available and mounted in the vicinity of the vent.
(m) A vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers, with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC Project H–2, “Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline,” or 33 CFR 183, subpart K, “Ventilation,” will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section.
[CGD 85–080, 61 FR 986, Jan. 10, 1996, as amended by CGD 97–057, 62 FR 51050, Sept. 30, 1997]


§*182.465***Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.
(a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with adequate means such as dripproof ventilators, ducts, or louvers, to provide sufficient air for proper operation of main engines and auxiliary engines.
(b) Air-cooled propulsion and auxiliary diesel engines installed below deck, as permitted by §182.420, must be fitted with air supply ducts or piping from the weather deck. The ducts or piping must be so arranged and supported to be capable of safely sustaining stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the supporting structure. Prior to installation of ventilation system for such engines, plans or sketches showing machinery arrangement including air supplies, exhaust stack, method of attachment of ventilation ducts to the engine, location of spark arresting mufflers and capacity of ventilation blowers must be submitted to the cognizant OCMI for approval.
(c) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with at least two ducts to furnish natural or powered supply and exhaust ventilation. The total inlet area and the total outlet area of each ventilation duct may not be less than one square inch for each foot of beam of the vessel. These minimum areas must be increased as necessary when the ducts are considered as part of the air supply to the engines.
(d) A duct must be of rigid permanent construction, which does not allow any appreciable vapor flow except through normal openings, and made of the same material as the hull or of noncombustible material. The duct must lead as directly as possible from its intake opening to its terminus and be securely fastened and supported.
(e) A supply duct must be provided with a cowl or scoop having a free area not less than twice the required duct area. When the cowl or scoop is screened, the mouth area must be increased to compensate for the area of the screen wire. A cowl or scoop must be kept open at all times except when the weather is such as to endanger the vessel if the openings are not temporarily closed.
(f) Dampers may not be fitted in a supply duct.
(g) A duct opening may not be located where the natural flow of air is unduly obstructed, adjacent to possible sources of vapor ignition, or where exhaust air may be taken into a supply duct.
(h) provision must be made for closing all supply duct cowls or scoops and exhaust duct discharge openings for a space protected by a fixed gas extinguishing system. All closure devices must be readily available and mounted in the vicinity of the vent.
(i) A vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers, with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC Project H–32, “Ventilation of Boats Using Diesel Fuel,” will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section.


§*182.470***Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.
(a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with §182.465, a space containing a diesel fuel tank and no machinery must meet the requirements of this section.
(1) A space of 14 cubic meters (500 cubic feet) or more in volume must have a gooseneck vent of not less than 65 millimeters (2.5 inches) in diameter.
(2) A space of less than 14 cubic meters (500 cubic feet) in volume must have a gooseneck vent of not less than 40 millimeters (1.5 inches) in diameter.
(b) Vent openings may not be located adjacent to possible sources of vapor ignition.
(c) A vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers, with ventilation installations in accordance with ABYC Project H–32, “Ventilation of Boats Using Diesel Fuel,” will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section.


§*182.480***Flammable vapor detection systems.
(a) A flammable vapor detection system required by §182.410(c) must meet UL Standard 1110, “Marine Combustible Gas Indicators,” or be approved by an independent laboratory.
(b) Procedures for checking the proper operation of a flammable vapor detection system must be posted at the primary operating station. The system must be self-monitoring and include a ground fault indication alarm.
(c) A flammable vapor detection system must be operational for 30 seconds prior to engine startup and continue sensing the entire time the engine is running.
(d) A flammable vapor detection system must provide a visual and audible alarm at the operating station.
(e) A sensor must be located above the expected bilge water level in the following locations:
(1) The lowest part of a machinery space;
(2) The lowest part of a space containing a fuel tank when separate from the machinery space; and
(3) Any other location when required by the cognizant OCMI.
(f) A flammable vapor detection system must be installed so as to permit calibration in a vapor free atmosphere.
(g) Electrical connections, wiring, and components for a flammable vapor detection system must comply with part 183 of this chapter.
(h) An operation and maintenance manual for the flammable vapor detection system must be kept onboard.
That's it!
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Old 15-12-2010, 15:05   #29
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According to their advert in "Spin Sheet"

"Algae does not grow nor exist in Diesel Fuel Tanks!"

Quote:
Originally Posted by Chief Engineer View Post
Fuel Valencer?

www.combustivecontrolsystems.us

Never seen one......
Quote:
Originally Posted by perchance View Post
What do you think? The web site is a little thin on facts and figures and long on scientific gobbledygook. Could be nothing more than snake oil but if true could have some merit.
Quote:
Originally Posted by hummingway View Post
This quote was from the news release page:
"Due to the CCS-FVM design and application of fundamental physical principles, an engineered Gauss field is directed at the diesel fuel contaminates as they flow through the Valencer. This results in the "cold fission" of particulate size that passes through the existing fuel filters and proceeds to complete combustion in the cylinders of the diesel engine."

To me that screams bull. It seems to me they are saying they apply a magnetic field to the fuel producing cold fission. Cold fission is not an event that would be easily produced, or measured if it were, and I don't understand what it would have to do with cleaning diesel fuel.
Gauss sounds like magnets to me.......My Dad just got Gaussed yesterday in a full MRI.....should I be worried?
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Old 15-12-2010, 15:25   #30
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Gauss sounds like magnets to me.......My Dad just got Gaussed yesterday in a full MRI.....should I be worried?
According to their indepth report he's a walking nuclear bomb!
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