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Old 16-07-2017, 08:51   #1
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Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

Westerbeke W30 with ~1000 hrs that used to run great, now harder to start and persistent unburned diesel fuel exhaust smoke. I have done a lot to it and still smokes. Fuel supply is perfect, new tank and all new lines, new electric pump, crystal clear fuel in Racor. Compression tested, all 4 cylinders are ~400 psi and close in numbers. I had the pump rebuilt as it leaked fuel into crankcase. Was unable to accurately reset injection timing, but put it back where it seemed to have been. Have replaced all 4 injectors which markedly improved the difficult starting and seems to run better, but still smokes. Requires full throttle to start. Smokes for several minutes when started, better when it reaches operating temp. No oil use, smoke is bluish but smells of diesel not burnt oil.

Injection timing is the only remaining thing I can think of. Has a CAV DPA rotary pump, body rotates on mounting bolts to set timing. Bolts are, of course, somewhat difficult to access. There is supposed to be a way to set the timing. All one needs is an unavailable obsolete tool to line up to a mark that isn't there.

Anything else I may be overlooking?
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Old 16-07-2017, 11:25   #2
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

The easiest way to adjust the timing is the fuel pump drive gear behind the water pump. It has 3 slotted holes and cap screws. You have the manual right? You can drop an intake valve onto the piston for timing also but that sounds like a pain. Gray smoke can be retarded timing. I have the same problem and my timing marks are perfect. The manual mentions "fine tuning", I'm going to try that.
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Old 16-07-2017, 12:37   #3
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

Hello Guy-
Thanks for the input. I think I may not have been clear. I am referring to the high pressure injection pump timing. You may be thinking of the lift pump on the port side behind the water pump">raw water pump. It is driven by its own cam lobe. The high pressure pump is driven by the Fuel injection pump driving spindle which is driven by a skew gear directly from the camshaft. Without changing the timing chain- behind the coolant pump- cam timing is fixed, and changing it also changes valve timing (bad). The pump drive spindle can be changed, but only incrementally by one tooth at a time. Since it was good, and now is not, without any intervening change, I don't think that is the way to go. The manual Section A.33 details the correct installation of the spindle.

There is a tool 18G629 to accurately set the injection pump timing, but I have been unable to locate such an item.
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Old 21-08-2017, 19:29   #4
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

Finally got to this task. "Only" involves loosening 3 nuts. Engine access is great, nut access poor. Also loosened throttle cable and fuel pipe clamp to allow easier rotation. Used a lever arm mounted to the 4 outboard nuts. Turned the pump a bit clockwise and smoke quit. Easier starting now. Starting not quite as good as I would like so I may adjust more, but wanted to wait for motor to be stone cold to confirm improvement so far. One thing I did to make nut access better next time was to flip the kill cable spring retaining arm around so it goes towards the engine. Should allow more than 1/12th turn at a time on the forward nut.
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Old 22-08-2017, 05:51   #5
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

I wonder if that is the reason I have an Allen head cap screw in the hard to get at hole? Sounds easier.
How did you decide which way to turn the pump?
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Old 22-08-2017, 06:16   #6
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

Bottom nut can only be done with a open end wrench, no room for even a box end, much less a Allen. Problem with other two is with the fuel piping and throttle/kill arms getting in way of straight shot access with a socket. Other accessories prevent much swing of a wrench. Aft one is OK with crow's foot wrench.

Deciding which way to turn was easy... went the wrong way first.
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Old 30-08-2017, 19:37   #7
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

SATISFACTION!!!!!!!!!!!!

Readjusted more clockwise. Loosened nuts, put my adjustment lever on it and adjusted position gradually while hitting starter intermittently. Found sweet spot and tightened down.

Now cold starts after about 1-2 seconds of cranking (although it is 85-90 degrees F here now) without preheat or opening throttle.

I think I am back to having a well performing engine again.
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Old 30-08-2017, 20:15   #8
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

Congrats. Persistence pays.
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Old 30-08-2017, 23:52   #9
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

I would like to compliment you on your persistence and also on the time you took to share your brave journey Thanks much
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Old 11-10-2018, 20:08   #10
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

Sanibel Sailor,
As a fellow cruiser with the venerable W-30/ 4.91 and low hours I commend you on your success of adjusting the fuel injection pump. Last summer I was noticing my engine after several years of running great for me since I bought it started to run a bit rough. Since then I've moved to beautiful sunny San Diego from Michigan, but the boat is still in Michigan. My problems started as most due to my own negligence.

My boat has an enormous 120 gal fuel tank. Over the last several years my goal was to work toward the bottom of the tank in the hopes of cutting an access hole and cleaning it. Before trips I would top up only on the fuel I would need not fill the whole tank. After a summer of no big trips I tried to put some fuel in but it kept burping. So I thought the tank was full... then I fought with the diesel all summer and replaced all the fuel lines because I kept occasionally getting air locked... Turns out my vent to the tank was partially plugged by spider eggs, and the main fill hose had developed a kink.

Eventually I partially stripped out the top bleed screw on my injection pump which were apparently prone to this as there was an updated pump released after the type I have with a different bleed screw. I repaired with a thread chaser once the whole top section was removed. During and after this I would start to loose my injection pulse on the #1 cylinder. So I now need to pull apart my pump and see whats up. I've got no pulse coming out of the injection pump on #1 line. Maybe some crap got sucked into the pump, maybe a metal shaving ( I was damned careful to have it all cleaned out but I know I have a problem). Anyways boats halfway across the damned country and I'm a DIY kind of guy (ie. it kills me to pay for this type of work). I guess my best course of action is to order that rebuild/ seal kit to start.

I think my plan of attack is also going to include getting the injectors tested and cleaned. I might replace the cylinder head gasket as if I top of the coolant reservoir it always seems to spit it out but it doesn't empty it all. Engine probably hasn't had its schedule maintenance for the valve adjustment, its only got about 1200hrs. I seem to have a moderately steady leak of oil from either the trans or the rear main. I've got my work cut out for bringing this boat to California. I hear they are very serious about oil or messes in bilges. As a side note I never had a float bilge pump because I always checked my bilge for oil before turning on the pump. I have pads under the engine and a bilge snake to keep my discharge water clear, although I'd love to get the engine from leaking anything I know that's a pipe dream on a motor like this.
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Old 12-10-2018, 03:06   #11
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Re: Diesel exhaust smoke - injection timing?

There is no rear main seal. The crank is a snug fit and has a spiral groove that brings oil back into crankcase. Gasket between crankcase and rear plate may be leaking, mine was bad at rear end of camshaft.

I sourced my head gasket from England via eBay. BMC 1500 used on narrowboats commonly.

For injector work, Iíve used Myles International. Fast and fair priced.
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