There are lots of books
out there that will answer some of your questions, and at least give you an idea of what it is all about. Personally, my interest in sailing was piqued by the book "Vagabonding Under Sail" written by W.I.B. Crealock
. Not sure if it's still in print or not, but a good read.
Just go to Amazon and google
"sailing adventure nonfiction." You'll come up with a hundred options.
For short answers to your questions... Well, actually, the only short answer to any of your questions is "it depends." You really need to be more specific as to what kind of sailing you're talking about.