Hi Dane and welcome to the Forum.
The best book to read on meteorology is the one that you can understand!
So if you are just starting out to study “the science of variables” then go to a library or a marine
college and get a basic primer on weather systems. Remember, that marine
colleges are teaching fisherman and mariners the weather basics so you can bet they will have some very good teaching aids that are designed for a layman to understand and use.
Once you get a full grasp of how it works, there are other books
that go into steering
influences of weather patterns (like how 500mb level reports can often steer temperate Lows) and many other variables to consider when you are doing your own weather prediction.
There are many good books on being a weather observer which were developed by the aviation industry as well as the Navy
so best to browse the libraries until you find one that reads well to you.
I commend you on taking an interest on being your own weatherman as so many sailors these days depend on being told, instead of learning
how to understand real time synopsis via Grib files and predict what will come based on their local observations.
A useful tool in your training is to use a 7 day forecaster like: PassageWeather - Wind, Wave and Weather Forecasts for Sailors and Adventurers
and see how the variable pressure gradients will affect local wind
and waves of a given region. Make it a daily habit to study an area then Note that the predictions are always modified every day and try to figure out why.
It is the only way to get a good feel for weather variables which is why some people call it an art rather than a science. To me it is both!