This is a great area for cruising, although destinations can be somewhat determined by the weather
direction, especially with only a weeks timeframe. The predominate SW wind
will take you easily east, but at times can be very difficult to return west back towards Newport.
Must see's for me (I've cruised this area for nearly 30 years):
Edgartown on MVineyard - skip Vineyard Haven
- expensive but ya pay to play....last year moorings were $70!
might be hard to get to & back with just a week.
Love Falmouth - although a tiny harbor that you must dock
at with reasonable prices compared to the above. Get a bike from Bob @ Holiday Cycles across from MacDougalls on the east side of the harbor & take the bike path to Woods Hole for the afternoon chowder hunt. Landfall make a great one (but while in Newport get a bowl at the the Black Pearl).
Cuttyhunk, although picturesque is a dry island that charges for moorings (there is a very small anchor
area in the inner harbor) that is usually overrun with weekend warriors from New Bedford & the natives are not overly welcoming.
Shortly up the chain is Hadley Harbor across from Wood's Hole that is very cruiser friendly (pickup a free mooring
ball if available) but is a private island that you cannot go ashore.
If your looking for secluded anchorages
, Tarpaulin Cove on the south side of Naushon Island or even Menemsha Bight with a SW or S wind are delightful.
Even Block Island just south of Newport is fun with the right wind from the N or E is an easy sail.
I should also mention that the area season runs until Labor Day, so things really wind down after this & you may find yourself with glorious sailing that is relative empty compared to in season.