The same in English
Add your user to the dialout group so it has access to the serial ports
Make sure nothing else, like gpsd is using the port
Run minicom to have a look what, if anything, is coming in on the port where you connected your GPS
Pretty much nothing you know from Windows will work on Linux exactly the same way, obviously
More information in English is for example at How To Check and Use Serial Ports Under Linux
We need to know way more about what you already did and what does not work to help you.