Cruisers Forum
 


Join CruisersForum Today

Reply
 
Thread Tools Rate Thread Display Modes
Old 26-03-2007, 08:44   #1
Moderator Emeritus
 
GordMay's Avatar

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: Thunder Bay, Ontario - 48-29N x 89-20W
Boat: (Cruiser Living On Dirt)
Posts: 31,571
Images: 240
Reading Weather Charts

Weather basics
Going cruising? Here's how to read the weather maps
by Gord May
With permission of: “GOOD OLD BOAT” Magazine

Published in Issue 45, Nov/Dec 2005

The following text is reprinted with permission of Good Old Boat magazine. I have tried (and failed) to upload the original article c/w graphics.

Ode to the Weatherman

And in the dying embers,
These are my main regrets:
When I'm right,
no one remembers;
When I'm wrong,
no one forgets.

The weather affects every person every day, but few people are more affected by weather than the mariner. An unexpected change in winds, seas, or visibility can reduce the efficiency of marine operations and threaten the safety of a vessel and its crew. It behooves the prudent mariner to become familiar with reading weather maps and interpreting what their content portends for future weather conditions.

Surface maps

Surface maps depict the large-scale elements of the weather. These elements include high- and low-pressure systems, cold and warm fronts, and precipitation areas. Current surface maps are updated every hour. Forecast surface maps are updated once each day.
High and low pressure centers are indicated by a large block H and L, respectively, together with a set of digits identifying the estimated value of the central pressure. On some charts, the H is colored blue, while the L is drawn in red.

A high-pressure system is an area of relative pressure maximum that has diverging winds and (in the Northern Hemisphere) a clockwise rotation. Fair weather is typically associated with high pressure.

A low-pressure system is an area of relative pressure minimum that has converging winds and rotates (in the Northern Hemisphere) in a counterclockwise direction. Stormy weather is often associated with low-pressure systems.

In the Southern Hemisphere, the rules listed here must be reversed.

Troughs

A low-pressure trough that contains significant weather phenomena (such as precipitation and distinct wind shifts) may be identified on the map by a thick brown dashed line running along the axis of the trough. On some maps this trough line may have the abbreviation, TROF. Surface fronts are generally found under trough regions.

A trough is an elongated area of low atmospheric pressure that can occur either at the Earth's surface or at higher altitudes.

Upper-level troughs influence many surface weather features, including the formation and movement of surface low-pressure areas and the locations of clouds and precipitation.
Precipitation tends to fall to the east of the trough axis, while colder, drier air tends to prevail to the west of the trough. This happens because air rises to the east of troughs. As air rises, it cools, and its humidity begins condensing into clouds and precipitation. Air sinks on the west side of troughs, which inhibits clouds and precipitation.

On weather maps of the Northern Hemisphere, troughs are shown by upper-air winds, or jet streams, blowing south and then turning back to the north.

Ridges

A high-pressure ridge is an elongated area of high atmospheric pressure. It occurs both at the Earth's surface and at higher altitudes. Upper-level ridges can have a major impact on the weather at the surface. Sunny, dry weather usually prevails to the east of the upper-level ridge axis, while cloudy, wet weather can dominate the weather picture to the west of the upper-level ridge axis. Air tends to sink to the east of the ridge axis, which inhibits clouds and precipitation. On the other hand, air tends to rise to the west of the ridge axis, which can lead to the formation of clouds and precipitation.

On Northern Hemisphere weather maps, upper-air ridges are shown by the path of upper-altitude winds, or the jet stream, turning to flow northward and then back to the south.

Fronts

The surface analysis may include one or more color-coded lines to identify a front. A front is defined as the transition zone between air masses having dissimilar thermal and moisture properties. Usually, these transition zones are only 50 to 100 kilometers wide, a sufficiently small horizontal distance to permit their representation as lines on a large-scale surface-analysis chart. Fronts are classified according to their movement and can be represented graphically on a surface analysis chart.

Warm fronts -- A red line with red half-moons pointing in the direction of air flow indicates a warm front, which is the leading edge of an advancing warm air mass that is replacing a retreating relatively colder air mass. With the passage of a warm front (generally at 10 to 15 knots), the temperature and humidity increase, the pressure rises, and, although the wind shifts (usually from the southwest to the northwest in the Northern Hemisphere), it is not as pronounced as with a cold frontal passage. Precipitation -- in the form of rain, snow, or drizzle -- is generally found ahead of the surface front, as well as strong winds, convective showers, and thunderstorms. Fog is common in the cold air ahead of the front. Although clearing usually occurs after passage, some conditions may produce fog in the warm air.

As the warm front approaches, winds blow from the east or southeast and pressure drops steadily. Cirrus clouds are sighted first, followed by cirrostratus, altostratus, and finally nimbostratus. Cloud cover gets progressively greater, from a few tenths coverage with cirrus, to completely overcast with the coming of the nimbostratus clouds. Gentle precipitation begins as the nimbostratus clouds move overhead.

As the warm front passes, temperatures rise, precipitation ceases, and winds shift to the south or southwest. Further, the sky clears and the pressure steadies. Later, with the approach of the cold front, cumulonimbus clouds fill much of the sky and bring the likelihood of heavy precipitation and the possibility of hail and tornado activity. The passage of the front is accompanied by a drop in temperature, clearing skies, a wind shift to the northwest, and rising pressure. Fair weather can probably be expected for the next day or two.

Cold fronts -- Cold fronts are depicted by a blue line with blue barbs pointing in the direction of the cold-air flow. A cold front is the leading edge of an advancing cold air mass that is under-running and displacing the warmer air in its path. Generally, with the passage of a cold front, the temperature and humidity decrease, the pressure rises, and the wind shifts (usually clocking from the southwest to the northwest in the Northern Hemisphere).
Precipitation is generally at and/or behind the front and, with a fast-moving system (up to 30 knots), a squall line may develop ahead of the front (weather deteriorates with rain, strong winds, and thunderstorms).

As the low approaches, cool temperatures are the rule, and winds are easterly because the warm sector of the cyclone is to the south. (A cyclone is just a meteorologist's word for a pressure system centered on a low core. Most cyclones are not capable of sending you and Toto to Oz.) The pressure drops and the sky becomes increasingly overcast. Precipitation is to be expected. As the front becomes occluded and slowly passes, winds shift from the north or northeast to the northwest. The sky begins to clear and the barometric tendency rises. Temperatures, however, remain cool or cold.

Clouds that are moving in a direction that differs from the way the wind is blowing indicate a condition known as wind shear. This sometimes indicates the arrival of a cold front.

Stationary fronts -- A line with alternating red warm-front symbols and blue cold-front symbols pointing in opposite directions symbolizes little frontal movement.
When warm and cold air of equal pressure are next to each other, no movement will take place. Stationary fronts usually produce weather similar to a warm front but milder.

Occluded fronts -- A front with purple (combined red and blue) half-moons and barbs on the same side, pointing toward the direction of frontal motion, shows an occluded front.
Often, in the later stages of a storm's life cycle, a frontal occlusion occurs. This occurs when the air in the warm sector of the storm is lifted off the ground. Two types of occluded fronts exist.

The first is a cold occlusion, which occurs when the air behind the front is colder than the air ahead of the front. In this situation, the coldest air undercuts the cool air ahead of the front and the occluded front acts very similar to a cold front.

The second type is a warm occlusion, which occurs when the air behind the front is warmer than the air ahead of the front. In this situation, the cool air is lighter than the coldest air ahead of the front. As a result, the cool air rises up and over the coldest air at the surface and the occluded front acts very similar to a warm front.

In both types of occlusions, the occluded front has well-defined vertical boundaries between the coldest air, the cool air, and the warm air. In most cases, storms begin to weaken after a frontal occlusion occurs.

Isobars

Isobars are thin solid lines depicting the features of the horizontal pressure field at mean sea level. They connect all points having the same sea level-corrected barometric pressure. By meteorological tradition, the isobar spacing is at 4-millibar (mb) intervals, centered upon 1000 mb -- that is, 996, 1000, 1004, and so forth.

Isobars with the lowest value will encircle the region with the lowest point in the pressure field, while the closed isobar with the largest value isolates the highest sea-level pressure. The packing of the isobars reveals how rapidly the pressure varies with distance in the horizontal direction. A tighter packing indicates a much more rapid horizontal variation of air pressure.

The isobar pattern is also useful for visualizing the near-surface wind regimes. The winds tend to parallel the isobars, with low pressure to the left of the wind flow in the Northern Hemisphere; a slight cross-isobar deflection of the winds toward lower pressure is often seen. As a result, winds appear to spiral in toward a surface low-pressure center in a counterclockwise fashion and spiral around a high-pressure cell in a clockwise outflow. Additionally, where the isobars are packed more closely, the wind speed tends to be greater.

If previous surface charts are available for the last day or two, you will be able to predict the movement of weather systems over time, based upon the principle of continuity.

Surface station models

The location of each reporting station has been printed on the base maps as a small circle. The weather data from each reporting station are plotted around these circles in a particular systematic fashion (convention) called a "station model."
Here's where you'll find the data:
• Temperature (degrees F) is plotted upper left
• Present weather symbol, center left
• Dew point (degrees F), lower left
• Pressure (0.1 mb-coded), upper right as last 3 digits
• Pressure trend, lower right
• Cloud cover, center circle; white fill indicates percentage of cloud cover
• Winds are shown in the wind arrow

For more on interpreting the symbols found in a station model, see <http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov>.

Dew point

Dew points indicate the amount of moisture in the air. The higher the dew points, the higher the moisture content of the air at a given temperature. Dew-point temperature is defined as the temperature to which the air would have to cool (at constant pressure and constant water-vapor content) to reach saturation.

Relative humidity can be inferred from dew-point values. When air temperature and dew-point temperatures are very close, as shown in the station model illustration on facing page, the air has a high relative humidity. The opposite is true when there is a large difference between air and dew-point temperatures. Conditions at locations with high dew-point temperatures (65 or greater) are likely to be uncomfortably humid.

Humidity is required for thunderstorms to grow for two reasons. First, the humidity in the air condenses to form the water drops and ice crystals that make up a cloud and the rain that begins falling if the water drops or ice crystals grow large enough. Second, humidity makes the air more unstable.

Pressure

If the reported value is greater than 500, the initial 9 is missing. Place it on the left, then divide by 10. For example: 827 becomes 982.7 mb.

If the reported value is less than 500, the initial 10 is missing. Place it on the left, then divide by 10. For example: 027 becomes 1002.7 mb.

Cloud cover and stability

In addition to coverage, cloud shape, size, height, color, and sequence may foretell what's to come. Stand with your back to the wind (true, not apparent) and watch which way the clouds move. In the Northern Hemisphere, high-altitude clouds moving from left to right indicate the weather may worsen; from right to left it may improve. If they move toward or away from you, the weather may stay about the same.

The atmosphere's stability or instability is one of the key factors that determines whether showers and thunderstorms will form and is responsible for the formation of the two predominant cloud types: stratus and cumulus.A more stable atmosphere generally produces stratus clouds, and the weather is generally calm, although rain or snow can fall. The rain or snow that falls on stable days tends to be slow and steady and covers a wide area.

Unstable days produce cumulus clouds, showers, and thunderstorms, with the most violent thunderstorms occurring on the most unstable days.

Generally, the atmosphere tends toward stability, and its primary motion is horizontal. Air masses may move horizontally for many thousands of miles, while the air within the mass may move less than a mile upward. However, when air moves over a warmer surface, it becomes heated and unstable. The lower levels become less dense and are then buoyed upward. Conversely, air moving over a colder surface is cooled, and it becomes denser and more stable.

Wind

The observed near-surface wind speed and wind direction are represented on the map by a wind arrow. The shaft indicates the direction from which the wind is blowing, and the barbs show wind speed in nautical miles per hour. Each short barb represents 5 knots, each long barb 10 knots. A long barb and a short barb is 15 knots, simply by adding the value of each barb together. Pennants are 50 knots. If only a station circle is plotted, the winds are calm.

Wind always blows in a circular pattern around high- and low-pressure cells. In the Northern Hemisphere, it blows clockwise (veering) around a high and counterclockwise (backing) around a low. This circulation is a direct result of the earth's rotation and is known as the Coriolis effect.

Backing winds shift in a counterclockwise direction with time at a given location (for example, from southerly to southeasterly) or change direction in a counterclockwise sense with height (for example, westerly at the surface but becoming more southerly aloft). In storm spotting, a backing wind usually refers to the turning of a southerly or southwesterly surface wind with time to a more easterly or southeasterly direction and derives from a low-pressure area. Backing of the surface wind can increase the potential for tornado development by increasing the directional shear at low levels and suggests nasty weather.

Veering winds shift in a clockwise direction with time at a given location (for example, from southerly to westerly) or change direction in a clockwise sense with height (for example, southeasterly at the surface turning to southwesterly aloft). The latter example is a form of directional shear, which is important for tornado formation. A veering wind suggests fair or improving weather in the Northern Hemisphere, due to clockwise rotation of high-pressure areas.

Clouds that move in a direction that differs from the way the surface wind is blowing indicate a condition known as wind shear. This sometimes indicates the arrival of a cold front. Weather fronts usually bring rain.

The speed of the wind also is an indicator of the weather. A strong wind usually means a big differential in the air pressure over a small space. This means that if a low-pressure system is approaching, it will likely be intense.

As communication technology improves, it is becoming easier to receive weather information. The better we understand the information these charts contain, the better we will be at making decisions that affect the safety of our boats and crews.


Missing Graphics:
Life cycle of a low shown below and on facing page. A frontal system develops as a cold mass meets a warm one (a). The cold air pushes under the warm air (b), creating a cold front on the left and a warm front at the right (c) in the Northern Hemisphere. The low is formed in the center, or tip, of the wave form with winds moving in a counterclockwise direction around the low (d). The entire system continues to move generally in an easterly direction as the two fronts become occluded (e) and the frontal system dissipates (f).
I'll continue to try to upload the original artwork.

UPDATE (Oct. 22/08):
I have been unable to upload the weather graphics, so have posted the actual magazine pages (with permission of GOB)

WEATHER BASICS - How to read a weather map
as published in Good Old Boat magazine (issue 45, Nov/Dec 05)

Page 1 (of 4)
http://www.cruisersforum.com/gallery...r&imageuser=79

Page 2
http://www.cruisersforum.com/gallery...r&imageuser=79

Page 3
http://www.cruisersforum.com/gallery...r&imageuser=79

Page 4 (of 4)
http://www.cruisersforum.com/gallery...r&imageuser=79


***
BTW:
* Good Old Boat Magazine has a FREE Trial Offer
Simply fill in the on-line form , and they'll send you a sample copy of Good Old Boat magazine.
Goto: http://goodoldboat.com:8080/GOBWeb/GOBSamplers/

BoatUS has reprinted a number of other “GOB” articles on-line
Goto: BoatUS.com: Good Old Boat Magazine And click on “Archives”

*Good Old Boat magazine (the magazine for the rest of us) focuses solely on 10-year-old and older model sailboats and the sailors who own and love them.

***
__________________

__________________
Gord May
"If you didn't have the time or money to do it right in the first place, when will you get the time/$ to fix it?"



GordMay is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 28-05-2007, 04:20   #2
Moderator Emeritus
 
GordMay's Avatar

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: Thunder Bay, Ontario - 48-29N x 89-20W
Boat: (Cruiser Living On Dirt)
Posts: 31,571
Images: 240
North American Weather Signs

Look for cloud, unsettled weather when:
* the barometer is falling,
* the temperature at night is higher than usual,
* clouds move in different directions at different levels,
* high, thin clouds (cirrus) increase. A large ring may appear around the sun or moon and remain there until overcast clouds thicken and obscure it,
* clouds darken on a summer afternoon.

Look for steady precipitation when there have been signs of unsettled weather, and:
* the wind is south or southeast, with pressure failing. If the pressure falls slowly, rain or snow will occur within a day; if it falls rapidly, it will rain soon, with increasing wind speeds,
* the wind is southeast to northeast, with pressure falling - it will rain or snow soon,
* thunderclouds developing against a south or southeast wind.

Look for showers when:
* thunderclouds develop in a westerly wind,
* cumulus clouds develop rapidly in the spring or summer during early afternoon.

Look for clearing weather when:
* the barometer is rising,
* the wind shifts into the west or northwest,
* temperature falls fairly rapidly, especially during the afternoon.

Look for continued bright weather when:

* you can look directly at the sun whenever it sets like a ball of fire,
* the barometer is steady or slowly rising cloudiness decreases after 3 or 4 p.m.,
* morning fog breaks within two hours after sunrise,
* a light breeze blows from the west or northwest,
* a red sunset occurs.

Look for higher temperatures when:

* the barometer is falling (in summer a falling barometer may indicate cloudy weather which will be cooler than clear weather),
* the wind swings away from the north or west into the southwest or south,
* the morning sky is clear, except when the barometer is high or rising in wintertime, or if the wind is strong from the north or west.

Look for lower temperatures when:

* the wind swings from the southwest into the west, or from the west into the northwest or north,
* skies are clearing (clearing skies in the morning will likely mean warmer weather by afternoon, particularly in summer),
* snowflurries occur with a west or north wind,
* the barometer is low and falling rapidly, wind east or northeast and backing slowly into north (the fall in temperature will be gradual).
__________________

__________________
Gord May
"If you didn't have the time or money to do it right in the first place, when will you get the time/$ to fix it?"



GordMay is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 29-05-2007, 13:03   #3
Senior Cruiser
 
starfish62's Avatar

Cruisers Forum Supporter

Join Date: Mar 2006
Location: Palm Beach, Florida
Boat: Gulfstar 44 Sloop
Posts: 647
Images: 4
Squash Zones?
__________________
Starfish
starfish62 is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 29-05-2007, 16:30   #4
Moderator Emeritus
 
GordMay's Avatar

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: Thunder Bay, Ontario - 48-29N x 89-20W
Boat: (Cruiser Living On Dirt)
Posts: 31,571
Images: 240
Did I mention "Squash Zones", which occur when is a low pushes up against a (often stationary) high, squashing the isobars, and creating high winds between them?
__________________
Gord May
"If you didn't have the time or money to do it right in the first place, when will you get the time/$ to fix it?"



GordMay is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 29-05-2007, 16:38   #5
Senior Cruiser
 
starfish62's Avatar

Cruisers Forum Supporter

Join Date: Mar 2006
Location: Palm Beach, Florida
Boat: Gulfstar 44 Sloop
Posts: 647
Images: 4
And the puny little sailboats stuck between them get squashed! The downer is that the bottom of the high and the top of the low have winds going in the same direction, so two relatively weak systems (like a 1020 high and a 1010 low) can combine to totally kick your $#@#&, even though either system doesn't look too bad individually.
__________________
Starfish
starfish62 is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 29-02-2008, 08:59   #6
Registered User
 
scotte's Avatar

Join Date: Apr 2007
Location: SF Bay Area, CA, USA
Boat: Privilege 39
Posts: 664
Here's a decent guide put out by NOAA for reading weather fax/GRIB files. Ocean Prediction Center User's Guide
__________________
scotte is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 21-10-2008, 06:03   #7
Moderator Emeritus
 
GordMay's Avatar

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: Thunder Bay, Ontario - 48-29N x 89-20W
Boat: (Cruiser Living On Dirt)
Posts: 31,571
Images: 240
Wind & Pressure:

Wind is an attempt to equalize the differential between pressure gradients, as indicated by Isobars.
This differential is the result of unequal heating of different portions of the Earth's surface. As air is heated it expands in the atmosphere. Because it expands, it becomes less dense and therefore, rises. This creates an area of low pressure at the surface. As the warm air rises, it begins to cool, eventually causing it to sink back to the surface creating an area of high pressure.

In general, air flows towards areas of low pressure, and away from areas of high pressure. Winds start blowing perpendicular to the pressure gradient, but the Coriolis effect deflects the wind towards the Right in the Northern Hemisphere (to the Left in Southern Hemisphere). This results in a spiral-like effect, in which the winds end up blowing nearly parallel to the pressure isobars (see Buys-Ballot's law).

Pressure and Pressure Changes (or lack thereof)
The approach of a low pressure or frontal system, tropical depression, storm, or hurricane is heralded by falling pressure. A steady, persistent drop in pressure normally indicates that foul weather is on the way. Be particularly wary of a rapid or sudden pressure fall of considerable magnitude.
A steady and persistent rise in pressure is indicative of a period of settled or stable weather. Steep pressure rises and falls are often accompanied by strong wind.
The passage of a front is often marked by a fall and subsequent steadying of pressure, or a fall followed by a rise in pressure.
High pressures accompanied by slow pressure changes usually indicate a location within or near the center of a large high pressure area.

Wind Shifts
If, during stormy conditions, the wind shifts from the east, southeast, or northeast, to the west, northwest, or north (in the northern hemisphere), the weather should soon begin to clear.
During fair weather, if the wind shifts from the west, southwest, or northwest, to the east, northeast, or southeast, (in northern hemisphere middle latitudes), a deterioration in weather conditions is likely (especially with a falling barometer).
In general (but not always), fair weather comes with a wind from the southwest, west, or northwest, and unsettled weather is usually associated with wind from the east, southeast, or northeast (all wind directions are reversed for the southern hemisphere).
Attached Thumbnails
Click image for larger version

Name:	Buys-Ballot's Law Diagram.png
Views:	1310
Size:	56.9 KB
ID:	5564   Click image for larger version

Name:	locating_low_pressure.jpg
Views:	1220
Size:	131.7 KB
ID:	5609  

__________________
Gord May
"If you didn't have the time or money to do it right in the first place, when will you get the time/$ to fix it?"



GordMay is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 21-10-2008, 08:29   #8
CF Adviser
 
Pelagic's Avatar

Cruisers Forum Supporter

Join Date: Oct 2007
Boat: Van Helleman Schooner 65ft StarGazer
Posts: 6,872
What a wonderful provider of educational resources you are Gord.... Thanks again
__________________
Pelagic is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 22-10-2008, 05:25   #9
Moderator Emeritus
 
GordMay's Avatar

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: Thunder Bay, Ontario - 48-29N x 89-20W
Boat: (Cruiser Living On Dirt)
Posts: 31,571
Images: 240
UPDATE:
I have been unable to upload the weather graphics, so have posted the actual magazine pages (with permission of GOB)

WEATHER BASICS - How to read a weather map
as published in Good Old Boat magazine (issue 45, Nov/Dec 05)

Page 1 (of 4)
http://www.cruisersforum.com/gallery...r&imageuser=79

Page 2
http://www.cruisersforum.com/gallery...r&imageuser=79

Page 3
http://www.cruisersforum.com/gallery...r&imageuser=79

Page 4 (of 4)
http://www.cruisersforum.com/gallery...r&imageuser=79
__________________
Gord May
"If you didn't have the time or money to do it right in the first place, when will you get the time/$ to fix it?"



GordMay is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 29-10-2008, 09:47   #10
Registered User

Join Date: Jul 2008
Location: Toronto, Canada
Boat: Hunter 31
Posts: 13
Hi there. I'm hoping this helps with some visualization of the lesson. While they're aviation based, they're useful enough sailing close to shore and on the Great Lakes. I always print these out and take them along in my weather briefing for reference later on in the trip. I'm sure the American aviation system has a similar set up for you guys-- I know the Australian aviation system does too. I'm also a pilot so it's easy for me, but I find these more useful than any of the marine forecasts I've seen. Maybe it's just what I'm used to.
Go here:
East coast Canada
http://www.flightplanning.navcanada....nnu&Mode=graph

Ontario:

http://www.flightplanning.navcanada....nnu&Mode=graph

__________________
Mark Overbury is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 30-10-2008, 15:53   #11
Registered User

Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: Copenhagen
Boat: Dufour, Grand Large 385, 39"
Posts: 35
Gordmay,

Thanks a lot for your very informative postings. Am I right that you have posted page 39 twice and not included page 38?

WEATHER BASICS - How to read a weather map
as published in Good Old Boat magazine (issue 45, Nov/Dec 05)

Please post page 38. Thanks again!
__________________
Dane is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 30-10-2008, 17:22   #12
Moderator Emeritus
 
David M's Avatar

Cruisers Forum Supporter

Join Date: Sep 2007
Location: San Francisco Bay
Boat: research vessel
Posts: 10,150
Great stuff Gordgle. I never imagined an entire course at the maritime academy becoming this well condensed, readable and effective.
__________________
David

Life begins where land ends.
David M is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 31-10-2008, 03:06   #13
Moderator Emeritus
 
GordMay's Avatar

Join Date: Mar 2003
Location: Thunder Bay, Ontario - 48-29N x 89-20W
Boat: (Cruiser Living On Dirt)
Posts: 31,571
Images: 240
Oops - here's the missing page 38.
http://www.cruisersforum.com/gallery...p?i=4905&c=500
__________________

__________________
Gord May
"If you didn't have the time or money to do it right in the first place, when will you get the time/$ to fix it?"



GordMay is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply

Tags
charts

Thread Tools
Display Modes Rate This Thread
Rate This Thread:

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are Off
Pingbacks are Off
Refbacks are Off


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Weather Basics ~ Reading Weather Charts GordMay General Sailing Forum 6 28-04-2011 16:35
Paper Nautical Charts SkiprJohn Navigation 41 10-10-2007 12:29
Scanned Charts on the computer... GreatKetch Navigation 41 30-03-2007 08:47
Reading a weather map - wind rleslie General Sailing Forum 4 02-12-2006 06:08
So many charts... MysticGringo Navigation 5 24-10-2006 07:39



Copyright 2002- Social Knowledge, LLC All Rights Reserved.

All times are GMT -7. The time now is 23:33.


Google+
Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.8 Beta 1
Copyright ©2000 - 2017, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.
Social Knowledge Networks
Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.8 Beta 1
Copyright ©2000 - 2017, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.

ShowCase vBulletin Plugins by Drive Thru Online, Inc.