The short answer is "no".
There are other data protocols for use by licensed ham operators, but they are painfully slow and their utility for the cruising sailor is limited, both because of their slow speed and the paucity of shore stations using those protocols.
There's a new "anytime now" software-based protocol called Winmor which has been "close to primetime" for a couple of years. It works by using your computer's soundcard in lieu of an expensive modem
. But, it's not available yet and, again, there aren't any shore stations which can provide the stuff needed by cruising sailors (like GRIB files, weather
synopses, etc.). You can read all about it here: WINMOR--A New HF Transmission Protocol for Winlink 2000 | Winlink 2000
Bottom line: for decent quality data comms over HF radio
which provide access to stuff a cruising sailor needs, at the moment you really have no alternative to the (yes, very expensive) SCS Pactor modems. Sometimes you can find them on the used market and save a few hundred dollars.
Now, if SCS would get smart(er) and drop the price
of their Pactor USB modem
to, say, $250 or even $399, they'd sell a ga-zillion of them and folks would stop tinkering with interesting but ultimately inferior alternative systems. IMHO.