Agree with post #1: We don't have to participate if we live overseas.
From live chat at https://www.healthcare.gov
(My emphasis added below.)
[10:06:23 am]: James
Wife and I are retired and live abroad the entire year. Have NOT been to the USA in more than 5 years. Won't return to USA in foreseeable future. Must we apply for ACA ?
[10:08:51 am]: Maria
To buy health
coverage through the Health Insurance
Marketplace, you must live in the United States, be a U.S. citizen or lawfully present, and cannot currently be incarcerated. Residents of a U.S. territory are not eligible to apply for health
coverage through the Marketplace. U.S. territories can decide whether to create their own Marketplace or expand Medicaid coverage.
[10:09:04 am]: Maria
If you are a U.S. citizen living in a foreign country, you are not required to get health coverage under the Affordable Care Act. If you're uninsured and living abroad, you don't have to pay the fee that other uninsured U.S. citizens may have to pay.
Generally, health coverage in the Marketplace covers health care
provided by doctors, hospitals, and medical
services within the United States. If you're living abroad, it's important to know this before you consider buying
a Marketplace plan.
And there it is, folk.